Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Hypoproteinemia

Contributor(s): David Frape, Prof Derek Knottenbelt, Nicola Menzies-Gow

Introduction

  • Hypoproteinemia (low serum total protein concentration) may result from hypoalbuminemia and/or hypoglobulinemia.
  • Cause: decreased intake, decreased production, increased metabolism, or increased loss, of protein.
  • Signs: edema, signs associated with the underlying cause.
  • Diagnosis: serum biochemistry and protein electrophoresis.
  • Treatment: supportive therapy, diet, and specific treatment for cause.
  • Prognosis: depends on underlying cause.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General

Pathophysiology

  • Decreased intake or production/increased metabolism or loss   →   decreased serum albumin and/or globulin   →   low plasma osmotic pressure   →   fluid passes into tissue spaces or serous cavities   →   edema.

Timecourse

  • Usually due to chronic underlying condition.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references fromPubMedandVetMedResource.
  • Kaikkonen Ret al(2014)Diagnostic evaluation and short-term outcome as indicators of long-term prognosis in horses with findings suggestive of inflammatory bowel disease treated with corticosteroids and anthelmintics.Acta Vet Scand56, 35PubMed.
  • Page A E, Slovis N M & Horohov D W (2014)Lawsonia intracellularisand equine proliferative enteropathy.Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract30(3), 641-658PubMed.
  • Metcalfe L Vet al (2013)A retrospective study of horses investigated for weight loss despite a good appetite (2002-2011).Equine Vet J45(3), 340-345PubMed.
  • Pusterla N & Gebhart C J (2013)Equine proliferative enteropathy a review of recent developments.Equine Vet J19(3), 344-347PubMed.
  • Jones P Aet al(2001)Effect of hydroxyethyl starch infusion on colloid oncotic pressure in hypoproteinemic horses.JAVMA218(7), 1130-1135PubMed.
  • Pusterla Net al(2001)Acute hemoperitoneum in horses: a review of 19 cases (1992-2003).J Am Vet Med Assoc218(7),1130-1135PubMed
  • Parraga M E, Carlson G P & Thurmond M (1995)Serum protein concentrations in horses with severe liver disease - a retrospective study and review of the literature.J Vet Int Med9 (3), 154-161PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Frape D (2004)Equine Nutrition and Feeding.3rd edn. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, England. ISBN: 1405105984.


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