Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Hypoproteinemia

Contributor(s): David Frape, Prof Derek Knottenbelt, Nicola Menzies-Gow

Introduction

  • Hypoproteinemia (low serum total protein concentration) may result from hypoalbuminemia and/or hypoglobulinemia.
  • Cause: decreased intake, decreased production, increased metabolism, or increased loss, of protein.
  • Signs: edema, signs associated with the underlying cause.
  • Diagnosis: serum biochemistry and protein electrophoresis.
  • Treatment: supportive therapy, diet, and specific treatment for cause.
  • Prognosis: depends on underlying cause.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General

Pathophysiology

  • Decreased intake or production/increased metabolism or loss   →   decreased serum albumin and/or globulin   →   low plasma osmotic pressure   →   fluid passes into tissue spaces or serous cavities   →   edema.

Timecourse

  • Usually due to chronic underlying condition.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Kaikkonen R et al (2014) Diagnostic evaluation and short-term outcome as indicators of long-term prognosis in horses with findings suggestive of inflammatory bowel disease treated with corticosteroids and anthelmintics. Acta Vet Scand 56, 35 PubMed.
  • Page A E, Slovis N M & Horohov D W (2014) Lawsonia intracellularis and equine proliferative enteropathy. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 30 (3), 641-658 PubMed.
  • Metcalfe L V et al (2013) A retrospective study of horses investigated for weight loss despite a good appetite (2002-2011). Equine Vet J 45 (3), 340-345 PubMed.
  • Pusterla N & Gebhart C J (2013) Equine proliferative enteropathy a review of recent developments. Equine Vet J 19 (3), 344-347 PubMed.
  • Jones P A et al (2001) Effect of hydroxyethyl starch infusion on colloid oncotic pressure in hypoproteinemic horses. JAVMA 218 (7), 1130-1135 PubMed.
  • Pusterla N et al (2001) Acute hemoperitoneum in horses: a review of 19 cases (1992-2003). J Am Vet Med Assoc 218 (7),1130-1135 PubMed
  • Parraga M E, Carlson G P & Thurmond M (1995) Serum protein concentrations in horses with severe liver disease - a retrospective study and review of the literature. J Vet Int Med 9 (3), 154-161 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Frape D (2004) Equine Nutrition and Feeding. 3rd edn. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, UK. ISBN: 1405105984.


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