ISSN 2398-2977      

Hypoglycemia

pequis
Contributor(s):

Nicola Menzies-Gow


Introduction

  • Hypoglycemia is a decreased blood glucose concentration.
  • Cause: decreased food intake or utilization; decreased glycogenolysis or gluconeogenesis; increased utilization, eg sepsis.
  • Signs: weakness/collapse progressing to central nervous signs, signs associated with underlying cause.
  • Diagnosis: blood glucose concentration measurement, identification of cause.
  • Treatment: supportive therapy; specific therapy depending on cause.
  • Prognosis: depends on cause.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Decreased food intake or assimilation:
    • Neonates.
    • Starvation.
    • Malabsorption.
    • Maldigestion.
  • Decreased production:
    • Hepatic insufficiency.
    • Adrenocortical insufficiency in neonates.
    • Sepsis.
  • Increased utilization:

Predisposing factors

General
  • Lack of dietary intake.
  • Excessive exercise.

Specific

  • Hepatic disease.
  • Sepsis.
  • Pregnancy.
  • Hyperthermia.

Pathophysiology

  • Decreased production and/or increased utilization   →   hypoglycemia.
  • Fasting   →   hepatic glycogenolysis maintains blood glucose until hepatic glycogen stores depleted   →   gluconeogenesis (hepatic and renal) utilizing body proteins and glycerol.
  • Insulin   →   inhibition of gluconeogenesis and uptake of glucose into cells   →   reduces blood glucose.
  • Hypoglycemia   →   glucagon increases, insulin decreases   →   glycogenolysis and/or gluconeogenesis   →   increased blood glucose.

Timecourse

  • Acute or chronic, depending on cause.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Wong D et al (2015) Hypoglycaemia associated with cholangiocarcinoma and peritoneal carcinomatosis in a horse. Vet radiol Ultrasound 56 (1), E9-E12 PubMed.
  • Lyle C H et al (2010) Retrospective evaluation of episodic collapse in the horse in a referred population: 25 cases (1995-2009). J Vet Intern Med 24 (6), 1498-1592 PubMed.
  • Hollis A R et al (2008) Blood glucose concentrations in critically ill neonatal foals. J Vet Intern Med 22 (5), 1223-1227 PubMed.
  • Alexander S L, Roud H K & Irvine C H (1997) Effect of insulin-induced hypoglycemia on secretion patterns and rate of corticotropin-releasing hormone, arginine vasopressin and adrenocorticotropin in horses. J Endocrinol 153 (3), 401-409 PubMed.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!