ISSN 2398-2977      

Gastrointestinal: dysphagia

pequis
Contributor(s):

David Moll

Graham Munroe

Synonym(s): Difficulty or inability to swallow


Introduction

  • Cause: morphological or functional, acquired or congenital (foals). Include choke, subepiglottic or pharyngeal cysts, guttural pouch tympany, etc.
  • Signs: ptyalism, gagging, dropped food (quidding), bilateral nasal discharge, coughing, neck extension, regurgitation.
  • Diagnosis: physical examination (oral, neurologic), pass stomach tube, endoscopy (pharynx, larynx, guttural pouches), radiology (head), ultrasonography (retropharyngeal area).
  • Treatment: dependent upon the cause or initiating factor.
  • Prognosis: dependent on initiating factors (cause).

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Morphological or functional etiology with many causes, including conditions   →   pain, obstruction or muscular/neurological dysfunction.
  • Pre-pharyngeal, pharyngeal or esophageal (post-pharyngeal).
  • Congenital or acquired.

Pathophysiology

Timecourse

  • May appear as an acute condition or gradual onset.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Cohen N D (1993) Neurologic evaluation of the equine head and neurogenic dysphagia. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract (1), 199-212 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Reed S M, Bayly W M & Sellon D C (2004) Eds. Equine Internal Medicine. 2nd edn. W B Saunders. ISBN: 0721697771.
  • Brown C M & Bertone J J (2002) The 5-Minute Veterinary Consult Equine. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. ISBN: 0683306057.
  • Anderson N V (1992) Ed. Veterinary Gastroenterology. 2nd edn. Lea & Febiger. ISBN: 0812111702.

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