ISSN 2398-2977      

Foal: wry nose

pequis

Introduction

  • Cause: congenital shortening and deviation of the maxillae, premaxillae, nasal and vomer bones, and nasal septum.
  • Signs: complicates feeding, causes respiratory obstruction.
  • Diagnosis: clinical examination, radiography.
  • Treatment: bilateral osteotomy of premaxillae/maxillae and rib graft; unilateral osteotomy of premaxilla/maxilla and distraction osteogenesis; bilateral osteotomy of premaxillae/maxillae and external fixation.
  • Prognosis: good for athletic endeavors after surgical correction.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Some authors have suggested that during the second half of pregnancy, the narrow tip of the uterine horns limits space necessary for the developing cranial half of the fetus head.
  • Consequently, the bones of the neck and head can become malformed.
  • Primiparous mares are supposedly more likely to produce a foal with wry nose because supposedly their uterus is more likely to be unable to distend to accommodate the growth of the fetus.

Epidemiology

  • The unsubstantiated belief that incidence is highest in Arabian   Arab   horses has caused speculation that the condition might be genetic, but the heritability of the condition has not been determined.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Tremaine H & Casey M (2012) A modern approach to equine dentistry 2. Identifying lesions. In Pract 34 (2), 78-89 VetMedResource.
  • Cousty M, Haudiquet P & Geffroy O (2010) Use of an external fixator for the correction of a wry nose in a mare. Equine Vet Educ 22 (9), 458-451 Wiley Online Library.
  • Schumacher J & Brink P (2010) Surgical correction of wry nose of 13 horses. Prat Vet Equine 42 (167), 39-45 CAB Direct.
  • Schumacher J, Brink P, Easley J & Pollock P (2008) Surgical correction of wry nose in four horses. Vet Surg 37 (2), 142-148 PubMed.
  • Puchol J L, Herran R, Durall I, Lopez J & Diaz-Bertrana C (2004) Use of distraction osteogenesis for the correction of deviated nasal septum and premaxilla in a horse. JAVMA 224 (7), 1147-1150 PubMed.
  • McKellar G M & Collins A P (1993) The surgical correction of a deviated anterior maxilla in a horse. Aus Vet J 70 (3), 112-114 PubMed.
  • Vandeplassche M, Simoens P, Bouters R, De Vos N & Verschooten F (1984) Aetiology and pathogenesis of congenital torticollis and head scoliosis in the equine foetus. Equine Vet J 16 (5), 419-424 PubMed.
  • Valdez H, McMullan W C, Hobson H P & Hanselka D V (1978) Surgical correction of deviated nasal septum and premaxilla in a colt. JAVMA 173 (8), 1001-1004 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Brink P & Schumacher J (2010) Improved Surgical techniques for Correction of Wry Nose in 13 Horses. In: ECVS. Helsinki. pp 74-76.
  • Auer J A (2005) Craniomaxillofacial Disorders. In: Equine Surgery. 3rd edn. Eds: Auer J A & Stick J A. Saunders. pp 1341-1362.
  • Baker G J (1999) Abnormalities of Development and Eruption. In: Equine Dentistry. Ed: Baker G J. Saunders, USA. pp 49-59.

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