Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Eyelid: neoplasia

Synonym(s): Eyelid cancer

Contributor(s): Dennis E Brooks, Cody Coyne, Prof Derek Knottenbelt, Anna Hollis

Introduction

  • A new and abnormal growth on the eyelid, specifically one in which cell multiplication is uncontrolled and progressive (benign or malignant).
  • Melanoma, sarcoid, mast cell tumor, lymphoma, squamous cell carcinoma, myxoma.
  • Cause: various causes for the different types of tumor, eg exposure to high intensity sunlight in SCC.
  • Signs: masses on eyelids, ocular discharge, photophobia.
  • Diagnosis: biopsy.
  • Treatment: cryosurgery, surgical excision, topical corticosteroids, radiation.
  • Prognosis: good if treated properly. Some treatments can cause serious scarring and distortion with secondary effects.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Squamous cell carcinoma is possibly actinic in origin (UV light related).
  • Sarcoids are highly associated with the presence of bovine papillomavirus (types 1 and 2).

Predisposing factors

General

  • Sarcoids at other sites predisposes to periocular sarcoid Sarcoid.
  • Lack of eyelid pigment (a strong but not certain predisposing factor) particularly along the mucocutaneous borders and third eyelid margin are very vulnerable to the development of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Gray color strongly predisposes to the development of melanoma Eye: neoplasia - melanoma.

Timecourse

  • Usually slow.
  • Both sarcoid and squamous cell carcinoma may take around 2-12 months to develop significantly.
  • Melanomas are usually slow growing.
  • Timecourse is unpredictable.
  • Mast cell tumors Skin: neoplasia - mast cell tumor are slow growing.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Henson F M D & Dobson J M (2004) Use of radiation therapy in the treatment of equine neoplasia. Equine Vet Educ 16 (6), 315-318 Wiley.
  • Knottenbelt D C & Kelly D F (2000) The diagnosis and treatment of periorbital sarcoid in the horse: 445 cases from 1974 to 1999. Vet Ophthal. 3 (2), 169-191 PubMed.
  • Paterson S (1997) Treatment of superficial ulcerative squamous cell carcinoma in three horses with topical 5-fluorouracil. Vet Rec 141, 626-628 PubMed.
  • Hilbert B J, Farrell R K & Grant B D (1977) Cryotherapy of periocular squamous cell carcinoma in the horse. JAVMA 170, 1305-1308 PubMed.
  • Strafuss A C (1976) Squamous cell carcinoma in horses. JAVMA 168, 61-62 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Knottenbelt D C, Patterson-Kane J C & Snalune K L (2015) Clinical Equine Oncology. Elsevier Press.
  • Brooks D E (2002) Ophthalmology for the Equine Practitioner. Made Easy Series, Teton New Media, USA. pp 45-47.
  • Pascoe R R & Knottenbelt D C (1999) Chapter 19: Neoplastic Conditions. In: Manual of Equine Dermatology. W B Saunders. pp 244-252.
  • Theon A P (1997) Cisplatin Treatment for Cutaneous tumors. In: Current Therapy in Equine Medicine. 4th edn. Ed: Robinson N E. W B Saunders, USA. pp 372-377.
  • Barnett K C, Crispin S M, Lavach J D & Matthews A G (1995) Upper and Lower Eyelids. In: Colour Atlas and Text of Equine Ophthalmology. Mosby-Wolfe, UK. pp 58-64.
  • Pulley L T & Stannard A A (1990) Tumors of the Skin and Soft Tissues. In: Tumors in Domestic Animals. 3rd edn. Ed: Moulton J E. University of California Press, USA.
  • Lavach J D (1990) Chapter 3: Eyelids. In: Large Animal Ophthalmology. Mosby, USA. pp 4252.


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