ISSN 2398-2977      

Eyelid: entropion

pequis

Introduction

  • Uni/bilateral inversion of lower eyelid margin.
  • Cause: congenital or acquired.
  • Signs: ocular irritation   →   lacrimation, conjunctivitis, blepharospasm, photophobia and corneal ulceration.
  • Treatment: topical or surgical.
  • Prognosis: good with early, appropriate treatment.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Secondary to:
    • Changes in orbicularis oculi muscle tone, tarsal plate weakness and globe position.
    • Weak, premature or systemically ill foals   Reproduction: prematurity / dysmaturity  .
    • Dehydration or anorexia.
  • Congenital/hereditary defect.
  • Ocular pain with enophthalmos   Enophthalmos  and blepharospasm.
  • Eyelid trauma in adult   →   severe eyelid scar tissue formation or phthisis bulbi.

Specific

  • Dehydration.
  • Anorexia.
  • Ocular pain.
  • Eyelid trauma.

Pathophysiology

EitherCongenital/hereditary.
OrSecondary.
OrPost-traumatic defect in eyelid biomechanics.
  • Congenital: unknown.
  • Secondary: systemically ill foal - ensuing dehydration and anorexia   →   enophthalmos   Enophthalmos  . The initial problem of inversion is exacerbated by pain-associated blepharospasm subsequent to conjunctival or corneal disease.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Moore C P (1992) Eyelid and nasolacrimal disease. Vet Clin N A Equine Pract (3), 499-519 (Review) PubMed.
  • Wilkie D A (1991) Ophthalmic procedures and surgery in the standing horse. Vet Clin N A Equine Pract (3), 535-547 (Review) PubMed.
  • Latimer C A et al (1985) Neonatal ophthalmology. Vet Clin N A Equine Pract (1), 235-259 (Review) PubMed.
  • Munroe G A et al (1984) Congenital ocular disease in the foal. Vet Clin N A Large Anim Pract (3), 519-537 (Review) PubMed.
  • Peiffer R L et al (1977) Correction of congenital entropion in a foal. Vet Med Small Anim Clin 72 (7), 1219-1225 PubMed.
  • Preister W A (1972) Congenital ocular defects in cattle, horses, cats, and dogs. JAVMA 160 (11), 1504-1511 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Brooks D E (1999) Equine Ophthalmology. In: Veterinary Ophthalmology. Ed: Gelatt K N. 3rd edn. pp 1053-1116.

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