Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Equine adenovirus infection (EAI)

Contributor(s): Christopher Brown, Melissa Kennedy, Timothy Mair, Graham Munroe

Introduction

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General
  • Failure of passive transfer.
  • Young immunologically naive animals.

Specific

Pathophysiology

  • EAV probably persists latently in pharyngeal lymphoid tissues and URT of apparently healthy animals for long periods, especially in adults.
  • Latency acts as source for inhalation infection of others, especially foals   →   an asymptomatic or mild URT disease.
  • In Arabian foals with SCID the virus is able to proliferate in and attack the respiratory epthelium (especially in lung)   →   cell death and epithelial hypoplasia.
  • Epithelial cells slough into alveolar/bronchiolar lumen   →   pulmonary atelectasis and bronchopneumonia.

Timecourse

  • Arabian foals: first few weeks of life.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Bell S A, Leclere M, Gardner I A & Maclachlan (2006) Equine adenovirus 1 infection of hospitalised and healthy foals and horses. Equine Vet J 48 (4), 379-381 VetMedResource.
  • Acland H M et al (1983) Ulcerative duodenitis in foals. Vet Pathol 20 (6), 653-661 PubMed.
  • Campbell T M et al (1983) Attempted reconstitution of a foal with primary severe combined immunodeficiency. Equine Vet J 15 (3), 233-237 PubMed.
  • Perryman L E et al (1978) Maintenance of foals with combined immunodeficiency, causes and control of secondary infections. Am J Vet Res 39 (6), 1043-1047 PubMed.
  • Whitlock R H et al (1975) Adenoviral pneumonia in a foal. Cornell Vet 65 (3), 393-401 PubMed.
  • McChesney A E et al (1974) Experimental transmission of equine adenovirus in Arabian and non-Arabian foals. Am J Vet Res 35 (8), 1015-1023 VetMedResource.


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