Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Distal phalanx: pedal osteitis - non-septic

Contributor(s): Graham Munroe

Introduction

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Primary non-septic pedal osteitis occurs rarely and is thought to result from severe solar concussion during exercise on hard surfaces.
  • Secondary non-septic pedal osteitis is more common and may occur due to persistent inflammation secondary to laminitis   Foot: laminitis  , persistent solar bruising   Foot: sole bruising  , incorrect foot trimming and shoeing   Sole: corns - incorrect shoeing    Farriery: incorrect shoeing  , poor foot conformation   Musculoskeletal: conformation  and distal phalangeal fractures   Distal phalanx: fractures  .

Predisposing factors

General
  • Chronic hoof disease, eg persistent bruising, laminitis.
  • Poor foot conformation   Musculoskeletal: conformation  :
    • Long toe, low collapsed heels with flared quarters.
    • Flattened sole.
    • Thin, poor-quality horn.
    • Excessive trimming or paring of the sole.
  • Excessive exercise or inappropriate ground conditions, eg hard rocky surfaces or racetracks.

Pathophysiology

  • Poorly-defined as a chronic inflammatory disorder of the distal phalanx, often characterized by demineralization and a range of radiographic changes in the distal phalanx.
  • Two forms are described depending on their etiology:
  • The distal phalanx has no medullary cavity and the term 'osteomyelitis' should not be used.
  • Usually secondary to other chronic foot-related problems.
  • Chronic inflammation and trauma to the bone of the distal phalanx   →   re-modeling of the bone and loss of mineral   →   osteoporosis.
  • Chronic pain and disease   →   further removal of bone and mineral.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Reeves M J et al (1989) Miscellaneous conditions of the equine foot. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract (1), 221-242 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Butler et al (2000) Clinical Radiology of the Horse. 2nd edn. Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK. pp 43-46.
  • Mayer W A (1989) Traumatic Pedal Osteitis in Racehorses. Proc AAEP 34, pp 417-419.


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