Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Colitis X

Contributor(s): Graham Munroe

Introduction

  • Syndrome of peracute, rapidly fatal, colitis and toxemia of unknown cause.
  • Cause: unknown. Clinically and pathologically similar to known causes of colitis, eg salmonellosis   Intestine: salmonellosis  and antibiotic-associated diarrhea   Diarrhea: antimicrobial associated  . Endotoxemia and gastrointestinal anaphylaxis may be involved.
  • Signs: rapid onset of severe diarrhea with endotoxemia, abdominal pain and tympany, and in some cases, sudden death.
  • Diagnosis: by exclusion of other cases of enterocolitis either pre- or post mortem.
  • Treatment: is similar to all other acute enterocolitis and centrally involves large volumes of intravenous fluids.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Clostridium cadaveris,C. difficile  Clostridium difficile  ,C. perfringenstype A   Clostridium perfringens  have been implicated as causes   Gastrointestinal: clostridiosis  .
  • Endotoxemia and gastrointestinal anaphylaxis may be involved with an acute type I hypersensitivity localized in the GI tract associated with an underlying disorder of the large intestine.
  • Other factors may include previous stress and depressed host resistance.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Stress.
  • Depressed host resistance.

Pathophysiology

  • Peracute fulminant colitis and toxemia which is often fatal.
  • Diarrhea results from intestinal inflammation and possibly type I hypersensitivity   →   increased mucosal secretory activity and intramural edema.
  • Endotoxemic   Endotoxemia: overview  and septic shock may supervene with infarction of intestinal segments due to intravascular coagulation.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Groover E S, Woolums A R, Cole D J & LeRoy B E (2006) Risk factors associated with renal insufficiency in horses with primary gastrointestinal disease: 26 cases (2000-2003). JAVMA 228 (4), 572-577 PubMed.
  • Keir A A, Stampfli H R & Crawford J (1999) Outbreak of acute colitis on a horse farm associated with tetracycline-contaminated sweet feed. Can Vet J 40 (10), 718-720 PubMed.
  • Whitlock R H (1986) Colitis: differential diagnosis and treatment. Equine Vet J 18 (4), 278-283 PubMed.
  • Vaughan J T (1973) The acute colitis syndrome. Colitis "X". Vet Clin North Am (2), 301-313 PubMed.


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