Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Cecum: impaction

Contributor(s): Peter Rakestraw, Vetstream Ltd

Introduction

  • Occurs secondary to cecal motility dysfunction.
  • Cause: possibly associated with concurrent disease or stress, eg surgery; poor quality feed.
  • Signs: often unnoticed: reduced fecal output, mild abdominal pain.
  • Diagnosis: history, signs, rectal examination, abdominal radiography.
  • Treatment: medical for less severe impactions (often unsuccessful), or surgery.
  • Prognosis: good if diagnosed and treated promptly.
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Pathogenesis

Predisposing factors

General
  • Stress, eg surgery (anesthetic protocol ?).
  • Concurrent disease.
  • Poor quality feed.
  • Poor dentition.
  • Sand ingestion.
  • Reduced water or food intake.
  • Parasitic infestation.

Specific

  • NSAIDs: may affect pathogenesis of impaction or may mask symptoms delaying diagnosis of impaction.

Pathophysiology

  • Cecal motility dysfuntion   →   impaction.

Timecourse

  • Slowly progessive.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Smith L C R et al (2010) Outcome and long-term follow-up of 20 horses undergoing surgery for caecal impaction: A retrospective study (2000-2008). Equine Vet J 42 (5), 388-387 PubMed.
  • Dart A J, Dowling B A corticosteroid & Hodgson D R (1999) Caecal disease. Equine Vet Educ 11 (4), 182-188 VetMedResource.
  • Merritt A M, Burrow J A & Hartless C S (1998) Effect of xylazine, detomidine and a combination of xylazine and butorphanol on equine duodenal motility. Am J Vet Res 59 (5), 619-623 PubMed.
  • Dabareiner R M & White N A II (1997) Diseases and surgery of the cecum. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 13 (2), 303-315 PubMed.
  • White N A II & Dabareiner R M (1997) Treatment of impaction colics. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 13 (2), 243-259 PubMed.


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