Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Cardiovascular: parasitic arteritis

Synonym(s): verminous arteritis

Contributor(s): Christopher Brown, Timothy Mair

Introduction

  • Cause: lesions in wall of major arteries attributable to migratingStrongylus vulgarislarvae   Strongylus spp  .
  • Signs: lesions in cranial mesenteric artery implicated in some cases of colic   Abdomen: pain - adult  .
  • Diagnosis: history and clinical signs.
  • Treatment: depends upon presentation.
  • Prognosis: depends upon severity of condition. Severity of colic induced ranges from mild, recurrent, to severe, rapidly fatal. Aneurysms may rupture and lead to sudden death.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General
  • Poor management - failure to implement adequate deworming program.

Pathophysiology

  • Larval migration   →   arteries   →   localized inflammation   →   embolic occlusion   →   infarction   →   areas of devitalized intestine and subsequent colic.
  • May   →   ballooning of artery (aneurysm)   →   rupture.
Thromboembolic colic
  • Arteritis most commonly occurs at root of cranial mesenteric arteries, or occasionally the renal arteries.
  • MigratingStrongylus vulgarislarve   →   damage to tunica intima of cranial mesenteric arteries/aorta   →   narrowing of lumen, or localized (often severe) arteritis with variable numbers of larvae.
  • Changes in the vessel wall (especially exposure of collagen) encourage platelet adhesion   →   release reaction   →   platelet aggregation which along with fibrin   →   thrombus formation.
  • Sites of arterial damage   →   turbulent blood flow   →   eddy currents   →   allow platelets to settle on endothelial surface.
  • Colic commonly results due to embolic occluson of mesenteric arteries   →   focal ischemia of jejunum, colon or cecum.

Aneurysm formation

  • Destruction/disruption to muscular layer   →   localized enlargement/ballooning (aneurysm) of arterial wall.
  • Aneurysms may rupture   →   catastrophic blood loss and possibly sudden death, especially if aorta involved.

Timecourse

  • Colic may be mild, intermittent and recurrent, or may be of rapid onset and progression.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references fromPubMedandVetMedResource.
  • Poole A W (1993)Thrombosis in the horse - the role of platelets in its pathogenesis and therapy.Equine Vet Educ5(2), 99-102 (A comparison between platelet function in the horse and other species related to anti-thrombotic therapy both present and future)VetMedResource.
  • Drudge J H (1979)Clinical aspects of Strongylus vulgaris infection in the horse.Vet Clin North Am Pract1(2), 251-265PubMed.


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