ISSN 2398-2977      

Candidiasis

pequis
Contributor(s):

Steve Adair


Introduction

  • Cause: the yeastCandida albicans  Candida albicans  , a ubiquitous mucocutaneous commensal.
  • Signs: stomatitis, endometritis, enteritis; secondary to altered defense mechanisms.
  • Diagnosis: direct microscopy, culture.
  • Treatment: systemic antifungals.
  • Prognosis: depends on underlying illness.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General
  • Malnutrition.

Specific

  • Immunosuppression.
  • Prolonged or repeated intra-uterine antibiotic therapy.

Pathophysiology

  • Altered surface defense mechanisms   →  C. albicans, a mucocutaneous commensal, invades epithelium   →   neutrophilic inflammatory response   →   ulceration and white plaque formation.
  • Failure of passive transfer   →   immunodeficiency   →   bacterial septicemia   →   lowered resistance to fungal colonization.
  • Malnutrition, other profound disease   →   general immunosuppression   →   lowered resistance to fungal colonization.
  • Antibiotic therapy   →   altered surface bacterial populations   →   reduced bacterial barrier mechanisms.
  • Colonization   →   neutrophilic immune response   →   inflammation, pain and swelling.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Reilly L K & Plamer J E (1994) Systemic candidiasis in four foals. JAVMA 205 (3), 464-466 PubMed.
  • Pugh D G, Martin M T, Shull J W & Bowen J M (1986) Endometrial candidiasis in five mares. J Equine Vet Sci (1), 40-43 VetMedResource.
  • McClure J J, Addison J D & Miller R I (1985) Immunodeficiency manifested by oral candidiasis and bacterial septicemia in foals. JAVMA 186 (11), 1195-1197 PubMed.
  • Brook D (1982) Diagnosis of equine endometrial candidiasis by direct smear and successful treatment with amphotericin B and oxytetracycline. S Afr Vet Assoc 53 (4), 261-263 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Sweeney C R (1997) Fungal diseases of the lower respiratory tract. In: Current Therapy in Equine Medicine 4. Ed: N E Robinson. W B Saunders, USA. ISBN 0-7216-2633-5.
  • Knottenbelt D C (1997) Medical disorders of the mouth. In: Current Therapy in Equine Medicine 4. Ed: N E Robinson. W B Saunders, USA. ISBN 0-7216-2633-5.
  • McKinnon A O & Voss J L (1992) Eds. Equine ReproductionLea & Febiger, USA. ISBN 0-8121-1427-2.

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