Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Botryomycosis

Synonym(s): Bacterial pseudomycetoma, bacterial granuloma, Staphylococcal micro-abscessation

Contributor(s): Prof Derek Knottenbelt, David Senter

Introduction

  • Cause:Staphylococcusspp,Pseudomonas aeruginosa(rare).
  • Signs: nodules, tumors on lips, limbs, scrotum; multifocal/widespread papules/pustules.
  • Diagnosis: history and clinical signs, cytology, culture, skin biopsy.
  • Treatment: surgical removal, antibiotic therapy.
  • Prognosis: good.
  • Botrys = Greek for cluster of grapes.
  • -mycosis = fungal infection

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General
  • Skin injury is usually a pre-requisite, eg skin wounds, puncture wounds or surgery and especially open castration   Testis: castration - overview  .

Specific

  • The cardinal feature is micro-abscessation occurring focally to produce the popular/pustular form or the larger multiple coalescing micro-abscesses with chronic inflammatory response around these.
  • Often confused with granulation tissue   Skin: botryomycosis 08 - forelimb  .

Pathophysiology

  • Bacterial infection of the skin that is not countered by cellular or humoral immune processes.
  • A granulomatous/pyogranulomatous response is directed against the bacterial colonies that are characteristically surrounded by eosinophilic material (Splendore-Hoeppli material) forming irregular granules.
  • The bacteria can be identified in histological section Gram-stained   Staining techniques: Gram stain  .

Timecourse

  • Usually slow expansion of either form occurs.
  • Rapid exacerbations do also occur.

Epidemiology

  • Sporadic.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Smiet Eet al(2012)Equine mammary gland disease with a focus on botryomycosis: A review and case study.Equine Vet Educ24(7), 357-366 VetMedResource.
  • Thompson P Net al(2001)Botryomycosis associated withPseudomonas aeruginosain the nasopharynx of a cow.Vet Rec149, 495-496 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Scott D W & Miller W H Jr (2003)Equine Dermatology.Elsevier, St. Louis.
  • Pascoe Ret al(1999)Manual of Equine Dermatology.W B Saunders, Philadelphia.
  • Ackerman L (1987)Cutaneous bacterial granuloma (botryomycosis) in five dogs: treatment with rifampin.MVPJuly/August. pp 404-409.


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