Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Bladder: displacement

Introduction

  • Cause: repetitive abdominal straining, eg parturition, colic.
  • Signs: urethral obstruction and dysuria; if everted - appearance of bladder mucosa at perineum.
  • Diagnosis: physical examination; passage of catheter to relieve obstruction; rectal palpation; ultrasonography.
  • Treatment: manual reduction.
  • Prognosis: will depend on the primary cause and type of displacement but always guarded.

Pathogenesis

Predisposing factors

General

Specific

  • Vaginal or perineal tears.

Pathophysiology

  • In mares extrusion of the bladder can occur via vaginal wall or perineal tears following trauma or foaling. May be everted and displaced with excessive straining and no trauma, often in association with uterine or vaginal prolapse. This is called a true prolapse and leads to eversion of the bladder through the urethra and into the vestibule.
  • In male horses, scrotal herniation of the bladder has been described but is very rare.
  • Urethral and ureteral obstruction is a common but not inevitable consequence.
  • Umbilical extrusion or eventration of part of the bladder has been described in one neonatal filly foal case. Urachal tearing apparently allowed eversion of the urachus and part of the bladder. Surgical resection of part of the bladder was successful in resolving the problem.

Timecourse

  • Acute.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Textor J A et al (2001) Umbilical evagination of the urinary bladder in a neonatal filly. JAVMA 219, 953 PubMed.
  •  Alvarenga J et al (1995) Prolapse with eversion of the urinary bladder in a mare. Equine Pract 17 (8), 8 PubMed.
  • Squire K R et al (1992) Postpartum partial cystectomy through the vagina in a mare with everted partially necrotic bladder. JAVMA 200, 1111 PubMed.  
  • Haynes P F & McClure J R (1980) Eversion of the urinary bladder: A sequel to third-degree perineal laceration in the mare. J Vet Surg 9, 66 VetMedResource.
  • Donaldson R S (1973) Eversion of the bladder in a mare. Vet Rec 92, 409 PubMed.
  • Noone J P (1966) Scrotal herniation of the urinary bladder in the horse. Irish Vet J 20, 11.

Other sources of information

  • Schott H C (2015) Urinary tract infection and bladder displacement. In: Robinson’s Current Therapy in Equine Medicine VII. Eds: Kim A Sprayberry & N E Robinson. Elsevier Saunders.
  • Jackman B R & Schott H C (1983) In: Current Therapy in Equine Medicine IV. Ed: N E Robinson, W B Saunders. ISBN 0-7216-2633-5.


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