Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Aorta: rupture

Contributor(s): Christopher Brown, Lesley Young

Introduction

  • Rupture of the aortic root may occur during strenuous exercise and usually causes sudden death.
  • Cause: etiology uncertain; may be associated with aneurysm, and migratingStrongylus vulgarislarvae   Strongylus spp  have been implicated in some cases.
  • Signs: sudden death on strenuous activity; peracute heart failure, sudden severe ventricular dysrhythmia.
  • Diagnosis: post mortem.
  • Treatment: none.
  • Prognosis: hopeless for true vessel rupture.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Obscure, but the following may be involved:
    • MigratingStrongylus vulgarislarvae   Strongylus spp  (aortic rupture in stallions shows no consistent evidence for parasite etiology).

Pathophysiology

  • Increased arterial pressure during activity is probably responsible for arterial rupture.
  • MigratingStrongylus vulgarislarvae   →   vessel wall damage   →   aneurysm   →   rupture   Cardiovascular: parasitic arteritis  .

Timecourse

  • Sudden death or peracute heart failure with death delayed for some hours.
  • Very occasionally, horses may survive with minimal clinical signs when rupture occurs through interventricular septum and defect is restrictive.

Diagnosis

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Boerma S, Back W & Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan M M (2012) The Friesian horse breed: A clinical challenge to the equine veterinarian? Equine Vet Educ 24 (2), 66-71 VetMedResource.
  • Kiryu K et al (1987) Cardiopathology of sudden cardiac death in the race horse. Heart Vessels Suppl 2, 40-46 PubMed.
  • van der Linde-Sipman J S et al (1985) Necrosis and rupture of the aorta and pulmonary trunk in four horses. Vet Pathol 22 (1), 51-53 PubMed.
  • Rooney J R et al (1979) Rupture of the aorta. Mod Vet Pract 60 (5), 391-392 PubMed.


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