Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Staphylococcus spp

Contributor(s): Ruth Morgan, Richard Walker

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Family: Micrococcaceae.
  • Genus:Staphylococcus.

Etymology

  • Gk:staphule- bunch of grapes; Gk:kokkos- grain, berry, seed.

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Many commensals on mucosal and skin surfaces.

Transmission

  • Endogenous infection.
  • Infection from environment.

Pathological effects

  • Some species kill leukocytes.
  • Cell envelope constituents may be antiphagocytic.
  • Peptidoglycan and cell-mediated immunity intensify the inflammatory response in abscesses.
  • Cell-mediated immunity localizes infection.
  • Clearance depends on phagocytosis.
  • Immunodeficient animals have frequent infections.
  • No lasting immunity after recovery.
  • Pathogenic staphylococci usually coagulase-positive.
  • Range of other enzymes and toxins such as leukocidin, alpha toxin, capsule, peptidoglycan, adhesins.
  • Typically form abscesses or cause chronic dermatitis .
  • Botryomycosis: chronic, ulcerative wound infection with fibrosis and suppuration .
  • Cellulitis in limbs of thoroughbred   Thoroughbred  racehorses.
  • Abortion   Abortion: overview  and mastitis   Mammary gland: mastitis  in mares.
  • MRSA   Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus  wound infections following surgery or hospitalization.

Other Host Effects

  • Coagulase-positive species commensal on skin and upper respiratory tract.
  • Coagulase-negative species part of normal skin flora.

Control

Control via animal

  • Drain and irrigate abscesses.
  • Topical antiseptics.

Control via chemotherapies

  • Antibiotic resistance common; susceptibility testing helpful.

Vaccination

  • None commercially available.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Akridge H D et al  (2013) Evaluation of the affinity of various species and strains of Staphylococcus to adhere to equine corneocytes. Vet Derm 24 (5), 525-e124 PubMed.
  • Couto N et al  (2013) Biocide and antimicrobial susceptibility of methicillin-resistant staphylococcal isolates from horses. Vet Microbiol 166 (1-2), 299-303 PubMed.
  • Maddox T W et al (2012) Cross-sectional study of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in horses. Part 1: Prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureusEquine Vet J 44 (3), 289-296 PubMed.
  • Maddox T W et al (2012) Cross-sectional study of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in horses. Part 2: Risk factors for faecal carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in horses. Equine Vet J 44 (3), 297-303 PubMed.
  • Greenberg S M et al (2011) Unilateral orbital lacrimal gland abscess in a horse. Vet Ophthal 14 (1), 55-60 PubMed.
  • Adams M K et al (2010) The bacteria isolated from the skin of 20 horses at a veterinary yeaching hospital. J Equine Vet Sci 30 (12), 687-695 PubMed.
  • Hesselbarth J & Schwarz S (1995) Comparative ribotyping of Staphylococcus intermedius from dogs, pigeons, horses and mink. Vet Microbiol 45 (1), 11-17 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Dr Susan Dawson, Department of Veterinary Clinical Science and Animal Husbandry, Crown Street, Liverpool, Merseyside L7 7EX, UK.
  • Biberstein E L (1990) Staphylococci. In: Review of Veterinary Microbiology. Eds: E L Biberstein & Y C Lee. Blackwell Scientific, USA. pp 150-156. ISBN 0 86542 085 8.

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