Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Synonym(s): P. aeruginosa

Contributor(s): Sarah Binns, Susan Dawson, Richard Walker

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Family: Pseudomonaceae.
  • Genus:Pseudomonas.

Etymology

  • Gk:pseudes-false;monas- a unit, alone.
  • Latin:aeruginosa- full of copper rust or verdigris, hence green.

Active Forms

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Ubiquitous in the environment, especially in damp, poorly ventilated areas.
  • May be carried in the intestinal tract of healthy animals.

Lifecycle

  • Multiplies in environment by binary fission.
  • Non-spore-forming.

Transmission

  • Infection may be endogenous or exogenous.

Pathological effects

  • Immunodeficiency, trauma and antibiotic therapy all predispose to infection withP. aeruginosa.
  • P. aeruginosahas pili   →   adherence to epithelial cells.
  • Exotoxins, endotoxin and extracellular products - all may play a role in pathogenesis.
  • Some strains have an antifagocytic capsule.
  • Causes wide variety of infections in many species, eg mastitis in cattle, sheep and goats, metritis, ocular and respiratory infections in horses, otitis and cystits in dogs, hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink and necrotic lesions in reptiles.

Other Host Effects

  • Widely found in the environment and as part of the normal flora of the gastrointestinal tract and mucous membranes of animals.

Control

Control via animal

  • Strict hygiene.
  • Judicious use of antimicrobial therapy.

Control via chemotherapies

  • Drug resistance related to R factors is a problem.
  • Strains may be resistant to all systemic antibiotics routinely tested.
  • Usually susceptible to gentamicin   Gentamicin  , tobramycin, amikacin   Amikacin  and carbenicillin, but antimicrobial susceptibility test recommended.
  • Tetracycline reaches bactericidal concentrations againstP. aeruginosain urine.
  • Most pseudomonads are susceptible to levels of antimicrobial agents in otic preparations, including neomycin, polymysin, chloramphenicol and gentamicin.

Control via environment

  • Clean, dry and disinfect fomites and hospital environments where immunocompromised animals are present.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references fromPubMed.
  • Mooreet al(2001)Molecular surveillance of the incidence ofTaylorella equigenitalisandPsedomonas aeruginosafrom horses in Ireland by sequence-specifice PCR.Equine Vet J33(3), 319-322PubMed.
  • Govan J R W, Sarasola P, Taylor D Jet al(1992)Isolation of a mucoid alginate-producingPseudomonas aeruginosastrain from the equine guttural pouch.J Clin Microbiol30(3) 595-599PubMed.

Other sources of information


ADDED