Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Parafilaria multi papillosa

Contributor(s): Maggie Fisher, Sheelagh Lloyd, David Senter

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Phylum: Nematoda.
  • Superfamily: Filarioidea.
  • Genus:Parafilaria.
  • Species:multipapillosa.

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Warm/wet areas especially some areas of Russia.
  • Clinical signs seasonal, associated with time of year whenHaematobiaspp present.
  • Transmission also seasonal.

Lifecycle

  • Female worm in subcutaneous connective tissue.
  • Eggs laid, hatch into microfilariae.
  • Ooze through pores onto skin surface.
  • Ingested byHaematobiaspp.
  • L3 develop within fly.
  • L3 deposited onto horse when infected fly feeds on lacrimal secretions/wounds etc.
  • Larve burrow into skin.

Transmission

  • Flies -Haematobiaspp implicated.

Pathological effects

  • Adult female worms cause subcutaneous nodule to develop.
  • Nodules 1-3 cm diameter, hard but do not appear to be itchy or painful.
  • Pore to surface skin.
  • Not associated with alopecia.
  • In daylight hours, in sunlight bloody fluid oozes from pore, hence names 'summer bleeding', 'bloody sweats', 'parasitic dermatorrhagia'.

Other Host Effects

  • Adults present in connective tissue of skin - no clinical signs during development.

Control

Control via chemotherapies

  • Ivermectin   Ivermectin  injected at 0.2 mg/kg reported to be effective following one injection.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Maloufi F (1995) Equine parafilariosis in Iran. Vet Parasitol 56, 189-197 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Lichtenfels J R (1975) Helminths of Domestic Equids: illustrated key to genera and species with emphasis on North American forms. Proc of Helm Soc Wash Special Issue 42, 1-92.

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