Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Leptospira interrogans

Contributor(s): Richard Walker

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Order:Spirochaetales.
  • Family:Leptospiraceae.
  • Genus:Leptospira.
  • Species:Leptospira interrogans.
  • More than 210 serovars.

Etymology

  • Gr:spira- a coil;chaete- a hair.

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Survive in contaminated water.
  • Areas of high rainfall and poor drainage harbor infections.

Lifecycle

  • Long generation time (12 h).

Transmission

  • Reservoir hosts include rodents.
  • Reservoir hosts become infected with host-adapted serovars.
  • Leptospiraspp are found in the mammalian kidney and excreted in the urine. The reservoir host shows no or only mild clinical signs.
  • Direct or indirect - contact with mucous membranes or damaged skin.
  • Indirect - depends on wet conditions.

Pathological effects

In horses

Control

Control via chemotherapies

Control via environment

  • Prevent contact with urine-contaminated water, especially near rodent habitats.

Vaccination

  • Killed vaccines are used in cattle, swine and dogs for some serovars.
  • There are no approved vaccines for horses.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Frellstedt L & Slovis N M (2009) Acute renal disease from Leptospira interrogans in three yearlings from the same farm. Equine Vet Educ 21 (9), 478-484.
  • Odontsetsed N et al (2005) Serological prevalence of Leptospira interrogans serovar Bratislava in horses in Mongolia. Vet Rec 157 (17), 518-519 PubMed.
  • Hogan P M et al (1996) Acute renal disease due to Leptospira interrogans in a weanling. Equine Vet J 28 (4), 331-333 PubMed.
  • Kinde H et al (1996) Leptospiral abortion in horses following a flooding incident. Equine Vet J 28 (4), 327-330 PubMed.
  • Dwyer A E et al (1995) Association of leptospiral seroreactivity and breed with uveitis and blindness in horses - 372 cases (1986-1993). JAVMA 207 (10), 1327-1331 PubMed.
  • Donahue J M et al (1995) Prevalence and serovars of leptospira involved in equine abortions in central Kentucky during the 1991-1993 foaling seasons. J Vet Diagn Invest (1), 87-91 PubMed.
  • Lees V W et al (1994) Titers to Leptospira species in horses in Alberta. Can Vet J 35 (10), 636-640 PubMed.
  • Wood J L (1994) How important are leptospiral infections as a cause of equine disease? Equine Vet J 26 (2), 88 PubMed.
  • Williams D M et al (1994) Serologic and microbiologic findings on 3 farms with equine leptospiral abortions. Equine Vet J 26 (2), 105-108.
  • Bernard W V (1993) Leptospirosis. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract (2), 435-444 PubMed.
  • Bernard W V et al (1993) Hematuria and leptospiruria in a foal. JAVMA 203 (2), 276-278 PubMed.
  • Philpott M (1993) The dangers of disease transmission by artificial insemination and embryo transfer. Br Vet J 149 (4), 339-369 PubMed.
  • Poonacha K B et al (1993) Leptospirosis in equine fetuses, stillborn foals, and placentas. Vet Pathol 30 (4), 362-369 PubMed.
  • Bernard W V et al (1993) Leptospiral abortion and leptospiruria in horses from the same farm. JAVMA 202 (8), 1285-1286 PubMed.
  • Donaghue J M et al (1992) Prevalence and serovars of leptospira involved in equine abortions in central Kentucky during the 1990 foaling season. J Vet Diagn Invest (3), 279-284 PubMed.
  • Hodgin E C et al (1989) Leptospira abortion in horses. J Vet Diagn Invest (4), 283-287 PubMed.

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