Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Cryptosporidium spp

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Phylum: Apicocomplexa.
  • Suborder: Eimeriina.
  • Family: Cryptosporidiidae.
  • Genus:Cryptosporidium.
  • See also:Cryptosporidium parvo

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Oocysts are found in the feces of many animal species.
  • Other stages are obligate parasites in the intestinal tract.

Lifecycle

  • Similar to that of other intestinal coccidia:
    • Oocysts, each containing 4 sporozoites, liberated in feces.
    • Ingestion   →   sporozoites invade microvillous brush border of enterocytes.
    • Develop into trophozoites   →   differentiate   →   schizonts containing 4-8 merozoites.
    • Gametogeny follows 1-2 generations of schizogeny.
    • Oocysts produced in 72 h.

Transmission

  • Oocysts by fecal-oral route.

Pathological effects

  • Severity of disease depends on immunocompetence of host.
  • Blunting and fusion of intestinal villi   →   diarrhea.

Other Host Effects

  • Subclinical infection common.

Control

Control via chemotherapies

  • There is no known specific treatment.
  • Spiramycin may be of some value.

Control via environment


Potential for zoonotic infection.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Chalmers R M, Thomas A L, Butler B A & Davies Morel M C G (2005) Identification of Cryptosporidium parvum geno type 2 in domestic horses. Vet Rec 156 (1), 49-50 PubMed.
  • Atwill E R, McDougald N K & Perea L (2000) Cross-sectional study of fecal shedding of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium parvum among packstock in the Sierra Nevada Range. Equine Vet J 32, 247-252 PubMed.
  • Moore J A et al (1988) Cryptosporidiosis in animals, including humans. Comp Cont Ed Pract Vet 10, 275.
  • Moon H W & Woodransee D B (1988) Cryptosporidiosis associated with immunosuppression attributable to distemper in a pup. JAVMA 192, 79 PubMed.

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