Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Synovial fluid: sampling

Synonym(s): Arthrocentesis Joint fluid collection

Contributor(s): James Cook

Introduction

  • An essential adjunct to the investigation of joint disease; aims to differentiate degenerative, infectious and immune-mediated conditions.

Uses

  • Articular effusions, polyarthritis, joint stiffness, joint pain Arthritis: osteoarthritis.
  • Investigation of pyrexia of unknown origin.
    Normal synovial fluid is of small volume (<1 ml in dogs), clear, viscous, pale or pale straw colored and does not clot on standing.

Advantages

  • Immediate subjective assessment of color and viscosity.
  • Differentiates major classifications of joint disease, ie infectious from non-infectious and inflammatory (neutrophilic) from degenerative disorders.
  • Multiple joints may be sampled.
  • Does not usually require general anesthesia.

Disadvantages

  • Yields small volumes of fluid, therefore may need to sample more than one joint.
  • All joints require analgesia.
  • Multiple sampling may confuse interpretation due to iatrogenic bleeding.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Montgomery R D, Long I R Jr., Milton J L et al (1989) Comparison of aerobic culture, synoval membrane biopsy and blood culture medium in detection of canine bacterila arthritis. Vet Surg 18 (4), 300-303 PubMed.
  • Pedersen N C (1978) Synovial fluid collection and analysis. Vet Clin North Am (3), 495-499 PubMed.


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