ISSN 2398-2942      

Pericardiocentesis

icanis

Synonym(s): Pericardial drainage


Introduction

  • There is a potential space between the myocardium and the pericardium (the pericardial sac).
  • This may become distended with fluid.
  • Pressure within the pericardial sac compromises cardiac function (cardiac tamponade) - particularly by causing collapse of the thinner-walled right ventricle.
  • Cardiac tamponade → acute congestive heart failure Heart: congestive heart failure.

Uses

Advantages

  • Life-saving.
  • Minimally invasive procedure when correctly performed.
  • Produces rapid benefit to patient.

Disadvantages

  • Risk of lacerating myocardium or coronary arteries.
  • May be unable to drain all fluid from pericardial sac.
  • Risk of recurrence of fluid accumulation.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Prognosis

  • Good for resolution of clinical signs acutely.
  • Pericardial effusion may recur weeks to years later if idiopathic. Usually within 10 days for mose cases of neoplasia (eg hemangiosarcoma Pericardium: hemangiosarcoma ).
  • Prognosis following repeated drainages is less good.
  • Guarded/poor prognosis for septic pericarditis and neoplasia.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Tobias A H (2010)Pericardial diseases.In: Ettinger S J, Feldman E CTextbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine.7th edn. Saunders Elsevier. Chapter 253, pp 1342-1352.
  • Kienle R D, Kittleson M D (2005)Pericardial disease and cardiac neoplasia.In:Small Animal Cardiovascular Medicine. St Louis: Mosby.
  • Sisson D, Thomas W (1999)Pericardial disease and cardiac tumours.In: Fox P R, Sisson D, Moise N STextbook of Canine and Feline Cardiology. 2nd edn. W B Saunders Company, Philadelphia. Chapter 29, pp 679-701.

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