Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Arthroscopy

Synonym(s): Endoscopic surgery, Rigid endoscopy

Contributor(s): Brian Beale

Introduction

Uses

  • Endoscopic examination of synovial cavity using rigid endoscope - to visualize internal structures, eg articular cartilage, menisci, ligaments, joint synovial membrane.
  • Arthroscopic treatment of joint disease.
  • Useful in experimental animals due to low morbidity even with repetitive examinations.

Advantages

  • Direct visualization of intra-articular structures without need for arthrotomy Hock: arthrotomy Joint lavage.
  • More thorough evaluation of intra-articular structures as compared to arthrotomy.
  • Minimally invasive, less morbidity - repeated examinations possible.
  • Useful for collecting synovial membrane biopsies from large joints.
  • Can operate on multiple joints and legs during the same surgical procedure
  • Well accepted by pet owners (arthroscopy is the technique of choice in human patients with joint disorders).
  • Shorter surgical time as proficiency is gained.
  • Ability to document lesions with photographs and videotapes before and after surgical treatment.

Disadvantages

  • Requires expensive equipment.
  • Learning curve is steep requiring time and experience to become proficient.
  • Requires considerable practice on cadavers to achieve satisfactory level of competence.
  • Initially surgical time is longer than arthrotomy.
  • Potential for iatrogenic trauma to the cartilage surface.
  • Requires sterilization techniques other than steam sterilization for some instruments.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Prognosis

  • Good: minimally invasive technique, short surgical time, minimal morbidity, fewer complications, quicker recovery.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Bardet J F (2000) Arthroscopy of the elbow in clinically normal dogs using the caudal portals. Vet Comp Orthop Traum 13 (2), 87-91 VetMedResource.
  • Van Ryssen B & van Bree H (1997) Arthroscopic findings in 100 dogs with elbow lameness. Vet Rec 140 (14), 360-2 PubMed.
  • Van Ryssen B, van Bree H, Simoens P (1993) Elbow arthroscopy in clinically normal dogs. Am J Vet Res 54 (1), 191-8 PubMed.
  • Van Ryssen B & van Bree H V (1992) Arthroscopic evaluation of osteochondrosis lesions in the canine hock joint: A review of two cases. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 28 (4), 295-9 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Beale B, Hulse D, Schulz K & Whitney W (2002)Small animal arthroscopy.Philadelphia: W B Saunders Co (in press).
  • McCarthy T C (2000)Arthroscopy. In:Veterinary Surgical Secrets. Ed: J Harari. Philadelphia: Hanley & Belfus pp 46-49.
  • Van Ryssen B & van Bree H J (1998)Diagnostic and surgical arthroscopy in osteochondral lesions.In:Vet Clin North America - Osteochondrosis.Ed: J Harari. Philadelphia: W B Saunders Co28 (1),161-189.


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