ISSN 2398-2942      

Urinalysis: blood

icanis
Contributor(s):

Kathleen P Freeman


Overview

  • Blood can be found in urine as RBC (hematuria) or free hemoglobin (hemoglobinuria).
  • Most commonly see RBCs associated with lower urinary tract disease.
  • Produces positive protein Urinalysis: protein reaction on dipstick.

Sampling

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Tests

Methodologies

Dipstick

  • Immerse dipstick in urine until wet.
  • Remove and shake off excess urine.
  • Hold horizontally to avoid run-off between pads.
  • Read test at correct time interval.

Microscopic examination

  • Spin urine and make smear of sediment.
    Either Add 1 drop of sedistain or a supravital stain such as Sternheimer-Malbin to the sediment.
    Or Leave 0.5 ml urine in centrifuge tube.
  • Resuspend sediment by vigorously tapping the centrifuge tube.
  • Transfer one drop of sediment to a microscope slide (via a pipette) and place a coverslip over it.
  • Lower the condenser on microscope to improve contrast.
  • Systematically examine entire specimen under the lower power objective, assessing quantity and type of sediment.

Availability

  • All veterinary practices.
  • External laboratories.

Technician (extrinsic) limitations

  • Requires practice to accurately identify erythrocytes and other features of urine sediment.

Result Data

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMedResource and PubMed.
  • Brobst D (1989) Urinalysis and associated laboratory procedures. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 19 (5), 929-949.
  • McCaw D L, Fleming E J & Mikiciuk M G (1989) Interpreting the results of urinalysis - a key to diagnosing renal disorders. Vet Med 84 (3), 281-286.

Other sources of information

  • Kaneko J J (1997) Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals. 5th edn. Harvey J W & Bruss M L (eds). Academic Press, USA.
  • Duncan J R, Prasse K W & Mahaffy E A (1994) Veterinary Laboratory Medicine Clinical Pathology. 3rd edn. Iowa University Press, USA.

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