ISSN 2398-2942      

Sulfadiazine

icanis
Contributor(s):

Lauren Trepanier


Introduction

Name

  • Trimethoprim/Sulfonamide.

Class of drug

  • Potentiated sulfonamide antibiotic.

Uses

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Indications

  • Many organisms are susceptible includingNocardia Nocardia spp ,Brucella, gram-negative bacilli, some gram-positive organisms (Streptococcusspp Streptococcus spp ,Pneumocystis carinii Pneumocystis carinii ,Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasma gondii and coccidial species Coccidioides immitis.
  • Pseudomonasspp Pseudomonas andLeptospiraspp are usually resistant.
  • Trimethoprim/sulfonamide is useful in the management of urinary, respiratory tract and prostatic infections,but are ineffective in the presence of necrotic tissue.
  • Trimethoprim alone may be used for urinary, prostatic, sytemic salmonella and respiratory tract infections.
  • Fewer adverse effects are seen with trimethoprim alone.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs



Warfarin
  • The anticoagulant effect of warfarin may be enhanced by trimethoprim/sulfonamide Warfarin.
Antacids
  • May decrease the bioavailability of sulfonamides if administered concurrently.
  • Although sulfonamides may displace other plasma protein-bound drugs such as methotrexate Methotrexate , oral hypoglycemic agents, phenylbutazone Phenylbutazone , phenytoin Phenytoin , probenecid, thiazide diuretics and salicylates Acetyl salicylic acid , the clinical relevance of such interactions is unclear. However, patients should be monitored for enhanced effects of displaced agents.
  • Urinary acidifiers increase the risk of sulfonamide crystal formation within the urinary tract.
  • Drugs containing procaine Procainamide may inhibit the action of sulfonamides.

with diagnostic tests

  • When using the Jaffe alkaline picrate reaction assay for creatinine determination trimethoprim/sulfonamide may cause an over estimation of approximately 10%.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Based on Small Animal Formulary. Tennant B (1999) 3rd edn. BSAVA, UK.
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