Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Pilocarpine

Contributor(s): Sheryl Krohne, Vetstream Ltd, Natasha Mitchell

Introduction

Name

  • Pilocarpine.

Class of drug

  • Direct-acting parasympathomimetic agent.

Description

Chemical name

  • (3S-cis)-3-ethyldihydro-4-[(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl]-2(3H)-furanone.

Molecular formula

  • C11H16N2O2.

Physical properties

  • Solution.

Uses

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Indications

  • Management of primary glaucoma Glaucoma. However, this drug is now rarely used for glaucoma in veterinary opthalmology with the availability of more effective and better-tolerated medication.
  • Management of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) Eye: keratoconjunctivitis sicca, in particular neurogenic KCS as the loss of parasympathetic innervation is the presumed cause of the profound reduction in lacrimal secretions. Pilocarpine has lacrimostimulant properties. It is not used as a sole agent.
  • Penetrates the cornea producing miosis within 15 min and is effective for 6 to 8 hours.

Administration

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Precautions

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Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Wegg M L (2020) A retrospective evaluation of systemic and/or topical pilocarpine treatment for canine neurogenic dry eye: 11 cases. Vet Ophthalmol 23(2), 341-346 PubMed.
  • Matheis F L, Walser-Reinhardt L, Spiess B M (2012) Canine neurogenic keratoconjunctivitis sicca: 11 cases (2006-2010). Vet Ophthalmol 15(4), 288-290 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Ramsey I (2017) Small Animal Formulary. 9th edn. 
  • Regnier A & Ward D (1999) Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. In: Veterinary Ophthalmology. 3rd edn. Ed K Gelatt. Baltimore: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins.
  • Plumb D (1999) Veterinary Drug Handbook. 3rd edn. Ames: Iowa State University Press.

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