Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Omega-3 fatty acids

Introduction

Name

  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids (FA).

Class of drug

  • Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA).

Description

Chemical name

  • Ω-3 fatty acids or n-3 fatty acids.
    • Polyunsaturated fatty acids having a double bond (C=C) starting after the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain. The fatty acids have two ends - the acid (COOH) end and the methyl (CH3) end. The location of the first double bond is counted from the methyl end, which is also known as the omega (ω) end or the n end.
  • Three important omega-3 fatty acids for veterinary medicine are the short chain FA α-linolenic acid (ALA) and the long chain FAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).
    • α-linolenic acid is generally found in plant sources (flax, corn, soy).
      • ALA must be converted in the body to EPA and DHA. This conversion by the enzyme delta-6-desaturase is very inefficient and is in competition with omega-6 FAs. Cats in particular have functionally no delta-6-desaturase activity; therefore their ability to obtain EPA or DHA from an ALA source is extremely limited.
    • EPA and DHA are found primarily in marine sources, like cold water fish, and do not need further processing by the body to be used; therefore, direct sources of EPA and DHA are preferable to ALA-based sources.
  • Omega 3-fatty acids are found in either an ethyl ester form or a triglyceride form. Omega-3 fatty acids in the body are in the triglyceride form.

Physical properties

  • Oil.

Storage requirements

  • Keep in cool, dry place out of direct sunlight. Keep container tightly closed.

Uses

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Indications

Administration

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Pharmocokinetics

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Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references fromPubMed.
  • Bauer J E (2011)Therapeutic use of fish oils in companion animals.J Am Vet Med Assoc239(11), 1441-1451PubMed.
  • Fritsch D A, Allen T A, Dodd C Eet al(2010)A multicenter study of the effect of dietary supplementation with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids on carprofen dosage in dogs with osteoarthritis.J Am Vet Med Assoc236(5), 535-539PubMed.
  • Roush J K, Dodd C E, Fritsch D Aet al(2010)Multicenter veterinary practice assessment of the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on osteoarthritis in dogs.J Am Vet Med Assoc236(1), 59-66PubMed.
  • Roush J K, Cross A R, Renberg W Cet al(2010)Evaluation of the effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids on weight bearing in dogs with osteoarthritis.J Am Vet Med Assoc236(1), 67-73PubMed.
  • Smith C E, Freeman L M, Rush J Eet al(2007)Omega-3 fatty acids in boxer dogs with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.J Vet Intern Med21(2), 265-273PubMed.
  • Lees G E, Brown S A, Elliott Jet al(2005)Assessment and management of proteinuria in dogs and cats: 2004 ACVIM Forum Consensus Statement (Small Animal).J Vet Intern Med19(3), 377-385PubMed.
  • Bauer J E (2007)Responses of dogs to dietary omega-3 fatty acids.J Am Vet Med Assoc231(11), 1657-1661PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Based onPlumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook. Plumb, Donald (2011) 7th edition.
  • Freeman L (2010)Optimal nutrition for feline cardiac patients.Proceedings, ACVIM Annual Forum.
  • Smith F (2011)Complementary therapies for cardiac diseases.Proceedings, Western Veterinary Conference.
  • White P (2003)Medical management of canine pruritus.Proceedings, Western Veterinary Conference.

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