Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Lidocaine

Synonym(s): Lignocaine

Contributor(s): Sheilah Robertson, Jo Murrell

Introduction

Name

  • Lidocaine.

Class of drug

  • Amide-linked local anesthetic.
  • Class 1B anti-dysrhythmic.

Description

Chemical name

  • 2-(diethylamino)-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)acetamide.
  • 2-diethylamino-2',6'-acetoxylidide.

Molecular formula

  • C14H22N2O

Physical properties

  • Clear, sterile aqueous solution.

Storage requirements

  • In a cool environment (<25°C).
  • Protect from light.

Uses

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Indications

  • Drug of choice for treating acute ventricular dysrhythmias Heart: dysrhythmia.
  • Used predominantly as a local anaesthetic Local anesthesia: overview.
  • Prevention of reperfusion injury.
  • Provision of intra-operative and post-operative analgesia when administered by Continuous Rate Infusion (CRI).

Administration

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Cimetidine

  • May increase serum lidocaine levels or its effects if administered concurrently Cimetidine.

Propranolol

  • May increase serum lidocaine levels or its effects if administered concurrently Propranolol.

Procainamide

Other anti-dysrhythmics

  • May cause increased myocardial depression.

Acetazolamide, loop diuretics and thiazides

Suxamethonium succinylcholine

  • Large doses of lignocaine may prolong suxamethonium-induced apnea Suxamethonium.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Vieitez V, Gómez de Segura I Á, Martin-Cuervo M, Gracia L A, Ezquerra L J (2017) Successful use of lipid emulsion to resuscitate a foal after intravenous lidocaine induced cardiovascular collapse. Equine Vet J 49(6), 767-769 PubMed.
  • Ko J, Weil A, Maxwell L, Kitao T & Haydon T (2007) Plasma concentrations of lidocaine in dogs following lidocaine patch application. JAAHA 43(5), 280-283 PubMed.
  • Cassutto B H & Gfeller R W (2003) Use of intravenous lidocaine to prevent reperfusion injury and subsequent multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 13(3), 137 - 148.

Other sources of information

  • Ramsey I (2017) BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. 9th edn. 

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