ISSN 2398-2942      

Levetiracetam

icanis
Contributor(s):

Simon Platt

Mark Lowrie

Synonym(s): Keppra


Introduction

Name

  • IUPAC.

Class of drug

  • Anticonvulsant.

Description

Chemical name

  • 2-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)butanamide.

Molecular formula

  • C8H14N2O2

Molecular weight

  • 170.209

Physical properties

  • Levetiracetam is a white to off-white crystalline powder with a faint odor and a bitter taste.

Storage requirements

  • Store in tightly closed container at room temperature away from heat and direct sunlight.

Uses

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Indications

  • Adjunct therapy for canine seizures Seizures refractory to standard medication.
  • Levetiracetam has been documented as the most well tolerated anti-epileptic drug in humans, with adverse reactions equivalent to placebo. Overall, this drug is proven to be a highly effective adjunctive therapy in humans to control seizures refractory to treatment.
  • It will be a useful drug to consider in dogs suffering from hepatic dysfunction or from phenobarbital liver insufficiency, allowing reduction of the phenobarbital dosage.
  • Recent reports demonstrate that levetiracetam is effective in reducing seizure frequency initially in over 50% of dogs but most dogs experience an increase in their seizure frequency after 4-8 months of treatment.
  • Appears to have greater efficacy against myoclonic seizures than phenobarbital.

Administration

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Pharmacokinetics

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Adverse Reactions

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Volk H A, Matiasek L A, Luján Feliu-Pascual A et al (2007) The efficacy and tolerability of levetiracetam in pharmacoresistant epileptic dogs. Vet J 176 (3), 310-319 PubMed.
  • Chandler K (2006) Canine epilepsy: what can we learn from human seizure disorders? Vet J 172 (2), 207-217 PubMed.
  • Benedetti M S, Coupez R, Whomsley R et al (2004) Comparative pharmacokinetics and metabolism of levetiracetam, a new anti-epileptic agent, in mouse, rat, rabbit and dog. Xenobiotica 34 (3), 281-300 PubMed.
  • Isoherranen N, Yagen B, Soback S et al (2001) Pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam and its enantiomer (R)-alpha-ethyl-2-oxo-pyrrolidine acetamide in dogs. Epilepsia 42 (7), 825-830 PubMed.
  • Genton P, Van Vleymen B (2000) Piracetam and levetiracetam: close structural similarities but different pharmacological and clinical profiles. Epileptic Disord (2), 99-105 PubMed.
  • Isoherranen N, Roeder M, Soback S et al (2000) Enantioselective analysis of levetiracetam and its enantiomer R-alpha-ethyl-2-oxo-pyrrolidine acetamide using gas chromatography and ion trap mass spectrometric detection. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 745 (2), 325-332 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Dewey C W, Bailey K S, Badgely B L & Boothe D M (2007) Pharmokinetics of a single-dose intravenous levetiracetam administration in normal dogs. J Vet Int Med 21 (3), 592.
  • Patterson E E, Leppik I E, O'Brien T D, Goel V, Fisher J E, Dunn A W, Cloyd J C (2007) Safety and pharmokinetics of intramuscular and intravenous levetiracetam in dogs. J Vet Int Med 21 (3), 592.
MEMBER BENEFIT

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!