Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Gabapentin

Contributor(s): Ian Battersby, Jo Murrell, Simon Platt

Introduction

Name

  • Gabapentin.

Class of drug

  • Anti-epileptic drug (GABA[gamma-aminobutyric acid] agonist) - analog of GABA.

Description

Chemical name

  • 1-(aminomethyl) cyclohexaneacetic acid.

Storage requirements

  • Store at room temperature.
  • Liquid form store in refrigerator.

Uses

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Indications

  • Adjunctive treatment of generalized seizures that are considered refractory to phenobarbitone Phenobarbital and potassium bromide Potassium bromide.
  • Adjunctive gabapentin therapy will reduce frequency of generalized seizures Seizures in over approximately 45% of idiopathic epileptic Epilepsy: idiopathic dogs refractory to phenobarbitone and potassium bromide therapy.
  • Adjunctive treatment of partial seizures Seizures with or without secondary generalization not satisfactorily controlled with other anti-epileptics Therapeutics: nervous system.
  • Management of neuropathic pain in man, for example painful diabetic neuropathy or post herpetic neuralgia.
  • Prevention of Chronic Post Surgical Pain in man.
  • Reduction in acute post-surgical pain in man.
  • The efficacy of gabapentin to treat neuropathic or acute post surgical pain in dogs is poorly documented and largely anecdotal or based on published case reports involving very few animals.

Administration

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Pharmocokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • None confirmed with any other anti-convulsants Therapeutics: nervous system but it may prolong half-life of felbamate Felbamate by 50% when the two drugs are used together.
  • Oral clearance may decrease when given with cimetidine Cimetidine.
  • Does NOT reduce the MAC of isoflurane in cats, this is likely also the case in dogs.

with diagnostic tests

  • Can give false positive urine protein tests (human data).
  • May also give rise to altered liver function tests in humans. Not known in dogs or cats.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references fromVetMedResourceandPubMed.
  • Aghighi S A, Tipoid A, Piechotta M, Lewczuk P, Kastner S (2012)Assessment of the effects of adjunctive gabapentin on postoperative pain after intervertebral disc surgery in dogs.VAA39, 636-646PubMed.
  • Plessas I N, Rusbridge C, Driver C J, Chandler K E, Craig A, McGonnell I M, Brodbelt D C, Volk H A (2012)Long term outcome of Cavalier King Charles Spaniel dogs with clinical signs associated with Chiari-like malformation and syringomyelia.Vet Record171,501PubMed.
  • Wagner A E, Mich P M, Uhrig S R, Hellyer P (2010)Clinical evaluation of perioperative administration of gabapentin as an adjunct for post-operative analgesia in dogs undergoing amputation of a forelimb.JAVMA236,751-756PubMed.
  • Pypendop B H, Siao K T, Ilkiw J E (2010)Thermal antinociceptive effect of orally administered gabapentin in healthy cats.Am J Vet Res71, 1027-1032PubMed.
  • Reid P, Pypendop B H, Ilkiw J E (2010)The effects of intravenous gabapentin administration on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in cats.Anaesth Analg111, 633-637.
  • Cashmore R G, Harcourt-Brown T R, Freeman P M, Jeffery N D (2009)Clinical diagnosis and treatment of suspected neuropathic pain in three dogs.Aust Vet J87, 45-50PubMed.
  • Hachad H, Ragueneau-Majlessi I and Levy R H (2002)New antiepileptic drugs: review on drug interactions.Therapeut Drug Monitoring.24,91-103.PubMed
  • Jensen A A, Mosbacher J, Elg Set al(2002)The anticonvulsant gabapentin (neurontin) does not act through gamma-aminobutyric acid-B receptors.Molec Pharmacol.61,1377-1384.PubMed
  • Honmou O, Kocsis J D and Richerson G B (1995)Gabapentin potentiates the conductance increase induced by nipecotic acid in CA1 pyramidal neurons in vitro.Epilepsy Res.20,193-202.PubMed
  • Radulovic L L, Turck D, Von Hodenberg Aet al(1995)Disposition of gabapentin (neurontin) in mice, rats, dogs, and monkeys.Drug Metab Dispos.23,441-448.PubMed
  • Macdonald R L and Kelly K M (1993)Antiepileptic drug mechanisms of action.Epilepsia.34 Suppl 5,S1-S8.

Other sources of information

  • Clarke H, Bonin R P, Orser B A, Englesakis M, Wijeysunder DN (2012)The prevention of Chronic Postsurgical Pain using gabapentin and pregabalin: a combined systematic review and meta-analysis.Anaesth Analgesia115, 428-442
  • Weinbroum A A (2012)Non-opioid IV adjuncts in the peri-operative period: pharmacological and clinical aspects of ketamine and gabapentinoids.Pharmacological Research65, 411-429.
  • Platt S R, Adams V, Garosi L, Abramson C J & Penderis J (2003)Gabapentin as adjunctive therapy for refractory idiopathic epilepsy in dogs.Proc 15th Ann ECVN Symp. Prague.

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