ISSN 2398-2942      

Alprazolam

icanis
Contributor(s):

Karen Overall

Gigi Davidson


Introduction

Name

  • Alprazolam/Xanax.

Class of drug

  • Benzodiazepine.

Description

Chemical name

  • 8-chloro-1-methyl-6-phenyl-4H-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a][1,4]benzodiazepine

Molecular formula

  • C17H3ClN4

Molecular weight

  • 308.769

Physical properties

  • Solid.

Storage requirements

  • Alprazolam is stable under standard storage conditions when recommended maintaining the medication in tightly closed container kept in a dry and well ventilated space. 

Uses

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Indications

  • Alprazolam is used across species. In humans, alprazolam is commonly used to treat panic disorder, a range of anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder and agoraphobia. Treatment can be alone or in combination with other medications (most common). In dogs, alprazolam is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat noise/storm phobia Noise sensitivities, situational phobia (eg going to the veterinary office Reducing stress (visits to practice), going to the groomer) and various anxieties, including generalized anxiety disorder.

Administration

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Precautions

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Interactions

With other drugs

  • Medications that use the same CYP 450 system enzymes (CYP34A) in metabolism will change pharmacokinetics of alprazolam.

With diagnostic tests

  • May decrease thyroid uptake of I-131.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Bushnell G A, Stürmer T, Gaynes B N et al (2017) Simultaneous antidepressant and bendzodiazepine new use and subsequent long-term benzodiazepine use in adults with depression, United States, 2001-2014). JAMA Psychiatry 74 (7), 747-755 PubMed.
  • Baldwin D S, Aitchison K, Bateson A et al (2013) Benzodiazepines: Risks and benefits. A reconsideration. J Psychopharm 27 (11), 967-971 PubMed.
  • Singh A P, Saraf S K & Saraf S A (2012) SLN approach for nose-to-brain delivery of alprazolam. Drug Deliv Transl Res (6), 498-507 PubMed.
  • Soler L I, Boix A, Lauroba J et al (2012) Transdermal delivery of alprazolam from a monolithic patch: formulation based on in vitro characterization. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 38 (10), 1171-1178 PubMed.
  • Ibáñez M, Anzola B (2009) Use of fluoxetine, diazepam, and behaviour modification as therapy for treatment of anxiety-related disorders in dogs. J Vet Behav Clin Appl Res (6), 223-229 VetMedResource.
  • Verster J C, Volkerts E R (2004) Clinical pharmacology, clinical efficacy, and behavioral toxicity of alprazolam: a review of the literature. CNS Drug Reviews 10 (1), 45-76 PubMed.
  • Crowell-Davis S L, Seibert L M,  Sung W et al (2003) Use of clomipramine, alprazolam, and behaviour modification for treatment of storm phobia in dogs. JAVMA 222 (6), 744-748 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Ramsey I (2017) Alpraxolam. In: BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. 9th edn. p 12.
  • Overall K L (2013) Manual of Clinical Behavioral Medicine for Dogs and Cats. Elsevier.
  • Sherman B L, Mills D S (2008) Canine anxieties and phobias: An update on separation anxiety and noise aversions. Vet Clin North Am Sm Anim Pract 38, 1081-1106 PubMed.
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