Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Ultrasonography: uterus

Contributor(s): Alison Dickie

Introduction

Uses

  • Detection of pregnancy.
  • Assessment of fetal well-being.
  • Estimation of gestational age.
  • Investigation of:
    • Vaginal discharge.
    • Infertility.
    • Palpable or radiographic caudal or mid-abdominal mass.

Advantages

  • Low cost.
  • Non-invasive.
  • Straightforward.
  • Short time requirement.
  • Rarely requires sedation.
  • No known biological risk.
  • Allows ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirate or biopsy to be performed.
    Time required will reduce with operator experience.

Disadvantages

  • May require patient's coat to be clipped.
  • Normal sonographic appearance does not exclude disease.
  • Abnormal sonographic appearance does not always indicate significant disease.
  • Similar sonographic appearance with different diseases.

Potential problems

  • Poor transducer-skin contact:
    • Inadequate clipping.
    • Insufficient coupling medium.
  • Inadequate restraint of patient.
  • Operator inexperience.
  • Patient has urinated prior to examination of the uterus so the bladder is empty.

Alternatives

Equipment

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Patient Preparation

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Technique

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Normal Anatomy

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Pregnancy

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMedResource and PubMed.
  • Cruz-Arambulo R & Wrigley R (2003) Ultrasonography of the acute abdomen. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract 18(1), 20-31 PubMed.
  • Hartzband L E (1994) Case of the day. 2. Diagnosis - pyometra. J Ultrasound Med 13(4), 331.
  • Dickie M B et al (1993) Diagnosis and therapy of the subinvolution of placental sites in the bitch. J Reprod Fertil Suppl 47, 471-475.
  • England G C et al (1993) Ultrasonographic appearance of the ovary and uterus of the bitch during oestrus, ovulation and early pregnancy. J Reprod Fertil Supp l47, 107-117 PubMed.
  • Renton J P et al (1993) Observations on the treatment and diagnosis of open pyometra in the bitch (Canis familiaris). J Reprod Fertil Suppl 47, 465-469 PubMed.
  • Yeager A E et al (1992) Ultrasonographic appearance of the uterus, placenta, fetus, and fetal membranes throughout accurately timed pregnancy in beagles. Am J Vet Res 53(3), 342-351 PubMed.
  • Rivers B et al (1991) Diagnostic imaging of the reproductive organs of the bitch. Methods and limitations. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 21(3), 437-466 PubMed.
  • England G C et al (1989) Real-time ultrasonic imaging of the ovary and uterus of the dog. J Reprod Fertil Suppl 39, 91-100 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • England G C W (1995) Small Animal Reproductive Ultrasonography. In: Veterinary Ultrasonography. Ed: Goddard P J. CAB International, Cambridge. pp 55-85.


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