ISSN 2398-2942      

Ultrasonography: cardiac

icanis
Contributor(s):

Alison Dickie


Introduction

Uses

Advantages

  • Low cost.
  • Non-invasive.
  • Straightforward.
  • Rarely requires sedation.
  • No known biological risk.
    Time requirement will reduce with operator experience.

Disadvantages

  • Usually requires patient's coat to be clipped.
  • Normal sonographic appearance does not exclude disease.
  • Abnormal sonographic appearance does not always indicate significant disease.
  • Similar sonographic findings with different diseases.
  • Must be familiar with normal anatomy before can reach meaningful clinical conclusions.

Potential problems

  • Poor transducer-skin contact:
    • Inadequate clipping.
    • Insufficient coupling medium.
  • Inadequate patient restraint.
  • Operator inexperience.
  • Lung may interfere with image quality.
  • Inadequate equipment.

Alternatives

Equipment

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Patient preparation

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Technique: B-Mode

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Technique: M-Mode

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Abnormalities

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Boswood A & Lamb C (2005) Doppler ultrasound examination in dogs and cats. 3. Assessment of cardiac disease. In Practice 27 (6), 286-292 VetMedResource.
  • Rishniw M (2001) Systolic aortic valve flutter in 6 dogs. Vet Radiology & Ultrasound 42 (5), 446-7 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Martin M W S (1995) Small Animal Echocardiography. In: Veterinary Ultrasonography. Ed Goddard P J. CAB International, Cambridge, UK. pp 131-164.
  • Kienle R D & Thomas W P (1995) Echocardiography. In: Veterinary Diagnostic Ultrasound. W B Saunders Company, Philadelphia. pp 198-255.

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