ISSN 2398-2942      

Therapeutics: respiratory system

icanis

Bronchodilators

Methylxanthines
  • Inhibit phosphodiesterase and antagonise adenosine receptors.
  • Little effect on larger airways.
  • Stimulate respiratory center → increase tidal volume.
  • Most effective in reversible airway obstruction rather than chronic disease where pathological changes inhibits ability to induce bronchodilation, hence wide variation in response to these drugs.
  • Also, central nervous system and mild myocardial stimulants, and mild diuretics.
  • Theophylline Theophylline , long acting formulations 10 mg/kg BID.
Adrenoceptor stimulants (sympathomimetics)
  • Beta 2-adrenoceptor stimulants.
  • Aerosol administration reduces cardiac effects, but usually impractical.
    (Some cats tolerate aerosolization of beta-2 agonists very well and exhibit a good clinical response).
  • Increase ciliary beating and are mucolytic.
  • Additional properties of beta agonists:
    • Inhibit increased vascular permeability, reduces local swelling.
    • Inhibit cell activation, including stabilization of mast cells.
  • Clenbuterol hydrochloride*.
  • Terbutaline sulphateTerbutaline.
  • Albuterol Salbutamol sulfate (for inhaled beta-2 agonist)*.

Anti-allergic and inflammatories

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Mucolytics and expectorants

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Cough suppressants (anti-tussives)

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Respiratory stimulants

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Bexfield N H, Foale R D, Davison L J et al (2006) Management of 13 cases of canine respiratory disease using inhaled corticosteroids. JSAP 47 (7), 377-382 PubMed.
  • Bach J E, Kukanich B, Papich M G et al (2004) Evaluation of the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of two extended-release theophylline formulations in dogs. JAVMA 224 (7), 1113-1119 PubMed.
  • Miller C J, McKiernan B C, Pace J et al (2002) The effects of doxapram hydrochloride (dopram-V) on laryngeal function in healthy dogs. JVIM 16 (5), 524-528 PubMed.

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