ISSN 2398-2942      

Therapeutics: parasiticide

icanis

Introduction

  • Parasitic infections are common in dogs. 
  • The most common ectoparasite infection is flea (Ctenocephalides felis). 
  • The most common endoparasite infection is ascarid (roundworm, Toxocara canis). 
  • Fleas and ticks are vectors of important diseases of dogs. 
  • Parasiticides are effective in the treatment and prevention many parasite infections. 
  • The duration of parasiticide coverage in dogs currently falls far short of veterinary recommendations for treatment frequency.
  • Side effects should be monitored for and reported. 
Some of these drugs are not licensed in veterinary species, and licensing varies across the world. It is therefore advisable to check with the local authority prior to administration.

Endoparasiticides - Nematodes

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Endoparasiticides - Cestodes

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Endoparasiticides - Flukes/Trematodes

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Ectoparasiticides

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Systemic ectoparasiticides

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Surface ectoparasiticides

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Ectoparasiticides by dosage form (including combinations)

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Environmental control of fleas 

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Mueller R S, Rosenkrantz W, Bensignor E, Karaś-Tęcza J, Paterson T, Shipstone M A (2020) Diagnosis and treatment of demodicosis in dogs and cats: Clinical consensus guidelines of the World Association for Veterinary Dermatology. Vet Dermatol 31, 5-27 PubMed
  • Rust M (2020) Recent advancements in the control of cat fleas. Insects 11, 668 PubMed.
  • Junquera P, Hosking B, Gameiro M, Macdonald A (2019) Benzoylphenyl ureas as veterinary antiparasitics. An overview and outlook with emphasis on efficacy, usage and resistance. Parasite 26, 26 PubMed
  • Perego R, Spada E, Foppa C, Proverbio D (2019) Critically appraised topic for the most effective and safe treatment for canine generalised demodicosis. BMC Vet Res 15, 17 PubMed
  • Capelli G, Genchi C, Baneth G, Bourdeau P, Brianti E, Cardoso L, Danesi P, Fuehrer HP, Giannelli A, Ionică AM, Maia C, Modrý D, Montarsi F, Krücken J, Papadopoulos E, Petrić D, Pfeffer M, Savić S, Otranto D, Poppert S, Silaghi C (2018) Recent advances on Dirofilaria repens in dogs and humans in Europe. Parasit Vectors 11, 663. PubMed
  • Lavan R, Heaney K, Vaduvoor S R, Tunceli K (2018) A comparative analysis of heartworm medication use patterns for dogs that also receive ectoparasiticides. Parasit Vectors 11, 493 PubMed
  • Merola V M, Eubig P A (2018) Toxicology of Avermectins and Milbemycins (Macrocyclic Lactones) and the Role of P-Glycoprotein in Dogs and Cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 48, 991-1012 PubMed.   
  • Wismer T, Means C (2018) Toxicology of Newer Insecticides in Small Animals. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 48, 1013-1026 PubMed
  • Kohler-Aanesen H, Saari S, Armstrong R, Péré K, Taenzler J, Zschiesche E, Heckeroth A R (2017) Efficacy of fluralaner (Bravecto chewable tablets) for the treatment of naturally acquired Linognathus setosus infestations on dogs. Parasit Vectors 10, 426 PubMed
  • McTier T L, Chubb N, Curtis M P, Hedges L, Inskeep G A, Knauer C S, Menon S, Mills B, Pullins A, Zinser E, Woods D J, Meeus P (2016) Discovery of sarolaner: A novel, orally administered, broad-spectrum, isoxazoline ectoparasiticide for dogs. Vet Parasitol 222, 3-11 PubMed 
  • Pfister K, Armstrong R (2016) Systemically and cutaneously distributed ectoparasiticides: a review of the efficacy against ticks and fleas on dogs. Parasit Vectors 9, 436 PubMed
  • Veronesi F, Morganti G, Di Cesare A, Schaper R, Traversa D (2014) A pilot trial evaluating the efficacy of a 10% imidacloprid/2.5% moxidectin spot-on formulation in the treatment of natural nasal capillariosis in dogs. Vet Parasitol 200, 133-138 PubMed
  • Conboy G, Stewart T, O'Brien S (2013) Treatment of E. boehmi infection in a mixed-breed dog using milbemycin oxime. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 49, 204-209 PubMed
  • Stanneck D, Kruedewagen E M, Fourie J J, Horak I G, Davis W, Krieger K J (2012) Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas, ticks, mites and lice on dogs. Parasit Vectors 5, 102 PubMed
  • Vo D T, Hsu W H, Abu-Basha E A, Martin R J (2010) Insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists as flea adulticides in small animals. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 33, 315-322 PubMed.  
  • Mealey K L (2008) Canine ABCB1 and macrocyclic lactones: heartworm prevention and pharmacogenetics. Vet Parasitol 158, 215-222 PubMed
  • Miró G, Mateo M, Montoya A, Vela E, Calonge R (2007) Survey of intestinal parasites in stray dogs in the Madrid area and comparison of the efficacy of three anthelmintics in naturally infected dogs. Parasitol Res 100, 317-320 PubMed
  • Krämer F, Hammerstein R, Stoye M, Epe C (2006) Investigations into the prevention of prenatal and lactogenic Toxocara canis infections in puppies by application of moxidectin to the pregnant dog. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 53, 218-223.  
  • Shanks D J, Gautier P, McTier T L, Evans N A, Pengo G, Rowan T G (2003) Efficacy of selamectin against biting lice on dogs and cats. Vet Rec 152, 234-237 PubMed
  • Pollmeier M, Pengo G, Jeannin P, Soll M (2002) Evaluation of the efficacy of fipronil formulations in the treatment and control of biting lice, Trichodectes canis (De Geer, 1778) on dogs. Vet Parasitol 107, 127-136 PubMed.
  • Gunnarsson L K, Möller L C, Einarsson A M, Zakrisson G, Hagman B G, Christensson D A, Uggla A H, Hedhammar A A (1999) Clinical efficacy of milbemycin oxime in the treatment of nasal mite infection in dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 35, 81-84 PubMed
  • Nuttall T J, French A T, Cheetham H C et al (1998) Treatment of trombicula autumnalis infection in dogs and cats with a 0.25% fipronil pump spray. JSAP 39, 237-239 PubMed
  • Bowman D D, Frongillo M K, Johnson R C, Beck K A, Hornbuckle W E, Blue J T (1991) Evaluation of praziquantel for treatment of experimentally induced paragonimiasis in dogs and cats. Am J Vet Res 52, 68-71 PubMed
  • Foreyt W J, Gorham J R (1988) Evaluation of praziquantel against induced Nanophyetus salmincola infections in coyotes and dogs. Am J Vet Res 49, 563-565 PubMed

Other sources of information 

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