ISSN 2398-2942      

Radiology: spine

icanis
Contributor(s):

Fraser McConnell


Introduction

Overview

Radiographic considerations

  • A low kV, high mAs technique will maximize contrast.
  • Detail screens and film should be used for small dogs.
  • A grid will be required for medium to large breeds.
  • Survey radiography is relatively insensitive for the diagnosis of many spinal conditions.
  • Myelography Radiography: myelography Radiology: myelography is required in most cases to confirm site of cord compression or disease.
  • At least 2 orthogonal projections need to be taken.
  • Positioning is extremely important as rotation and obliquity of the spine can make interpretation very difficult and may lead to erroneous diagnosis.
  • Due to geometric effects of the diverging primary beam there will be artefactual narrowing of the intervertebral disks at the periphery of the film.
  • For this reason multiple radiographs are required, centered on each region of the spine to avoid erroneous diagnosis of narrowed intervertebral disks.

Restraint

  • Spinal radiography usually requires anesthesia to facilitate positioning.
  • Care needs to be taken moving patient with suspected vertebral fractures or luxations as muscle relaxation with anesthesia may result in fracture/luxation becoming unstable.

Indications

  • Investigation of neurological disease localized to spine.
  • Back or neck pain.
  • Investigation of FUO.
  • Investigation of certain tumors, eg myeloma Myeloma.

Radiographic anatomy

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Interpretation

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Additional studies

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Penderis J, Schwarz T, McConnell J F et al (2005) Dysplasia of the caudal vertebral articular facets in four dogs: results of radiographic, myelographic and magnetic resonance imaging investigations. Vet Rec 156 (19), 601-605 PubMed.
  • Bailey C S (1975) An embryological approach to the clinical significance of congenital vertebral and spinal cord abnormalities. JAAHA 11 (4), 426-434 VetMedResource.

Related Images

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code