Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Radiology: appendicular skeleton (long bones)

Contributor(s): Fraser McConnell

Introduction

Overview

Radiographic considerations

  • Detail screens and film combinations should be used for most examinations.
  • A grid and fast screen may be required for examination of the humerus, pelvis and femur in large dogs.
  • A low kV high mAs technique maximizes contrast.
  • Due to geometric effects of the diverging beam radiography should be centered at the point of interest.
    For angular limb deformities separate radiographs of adjacent joints should be taken (in addition to the entire limb) to allow joint evaluation without geometric distortion.
  • Orthoganol views are required as significant pathology, eg fractures, luxation may be missed on a single view.
  • In examination of suspected joint instability, eg ligament injury, 'stressed' views may be helpful.
    This can be done by using sandbags and ties - manual restraint is not required.

Restraint

  • Skeletal radiography usually requires sedation but some painful condition may require anesthesia to facilitate positioning.
  • In trauma patients evaluation and treatment of concurrent thoracic, abdominal or CNS injury should be undertaken before skeletal radiography.

Indications

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Interpretation

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Additional studies

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers


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