Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Pregnancy: diagnosis

Contributor(s): Autumn P Davidson


  • Pregnancy diagnosis and subsequent examinations are important because:
    • Owners can sell puppies while they are still in utero.
    • The fertility of a stud dog can be proven.
    • Normal gestation and fetal health can be confirmed.
    • Stud fees can be paid on the basis of a positive pregnancy diagnosis.
    • Owner can prepare for the parturition.
    • Single puppy syndrome can be confirmed and managed appropriately.
    • Non-gravid females need not be treated unnecessarily to terminate pregnancy.
    • Differentiate failure to conceive vs. resorption.
    • Permits therapy as indicated or uterine irritability/pre-term labor in conjunction with tocodynamometry.
    • Permit early evaluation for failure to conceive.


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Further Reading


Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Davidson A P & Baker T W (2009) Reproductive ultrasound of the bitch and queen. Top Companion Anim Med 24 (2), 55-63 PubMed.
  • Beccaglia M & Luvoni G C (2006) Comparison of the accuracy of two ultrasonographic measurements in predicting the parturition in the bitch. JSAP 47 (11), 670-3 PubMed.
  • Eilts B, Davidson A P, Hosgood G et al (2005) Factors affecting gestation duration in the bitch. Theriogenology 64 (2), 242-51 PubMed.
  • Luvoni G C & Grioni A (2000) Determination of gestational age in medium and small size bitches using ultrasonographic fetal measurements. JSAP 41 (7), 292-294 PubMed.
  • Eneroth A, Linde-Forsberg C, Uhlhorn M et al (1999) Radiographic pelvimetry for assessment of dystocia in bitches - a clinical study in two terrier breeds. JSAP 40 (6), 257-264 PubMed.
  • England G C W & Allen W E (1990) Studies on canine pregnancy using B-mode ultrasound - diagnosis of early pregnancy and the number of conceptuses. JSAP 31 (7), 321-323 Wiley Online Library.
  • England G C W, Allen W E, Porter D J (1990) Studies on canine pregnancy using B-mode ultrasound - development of the conceptus and determination of gestational age. JSAP 31 (7), 324-329 VetMedResource.