ISSN 2398-2942      

Neoplasia: TNM staging

icanis

Introduction

  • Anatomical classification giving an objective description of the extent of the neoplasm.
  • Extent of primary tumor (T) and the presence, absence or likelihood of metastatic disease (N, M ) are of great importance in determining the feasibility of therapy and the overall prognosis.
  • There is a difference between clinical stage and true pathological stage of the disease because it is often impossible to detect microscopic tumor extensions or deposits.
  • Location of the tumor and histological type and grade may also be of prognostic significance.

Primary tumor (T)

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Lymph nodes (N)

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Distant metastasis (M)

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Lymphoproliferative disorders

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Argyle D J, Brearley M J & Turek M M (2008) Clinical Approach to the Cancer Patient. In: Decision Making in Small Animal Oncology. Wiley Blackwell, Ames, Iowa, USA.
  • Morrison W B (2002) Clinical Evaluation of Cancer Patients. In: Cancer in Dogs and Cats: Medial and Surgical Management. 2nd edn. Teton New Media, Jackson, WY, USA.

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