ISSN 2398-2942      

Fundoscopy: normal findings

icanis

Examination techniques

  • Examination of the fundus is achieved by ophthalmoscopy.
  • Direct ophthalmoscopy provides a small field of view of a magnified image, and is useful when examining an area in greater detail Direct ophthalmoscopy.
  • Indirect ophthalmoscopy provides a wide field of view, is the best way of scanning the entire fundus and is possible even with partial opacity of the ocular media Indirect ophthalmoscopy.

Examination preparation

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Normal fundus components

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Normal variations with age

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Normal variations with subalbinism

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Barnett K C (1994) The canine ocular fundus: normal variations. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 16 (3), 348-356 VetMedResource.

 

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