Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Fracture: healing

Contributor(s): Joseph Harari, Susan Rackard, Richard Meeson

Introduction

  • Bone healing can be summarized: fracture → hemorrhage → blood clot formation →organization of clot into granulation tissue (infiltration of fibroblasts/fibrocytes) → recruitment of stem and progenitor cells, fibrous callus (osteoblast activity) → calcified callus (cartilage and immature bone) → osteoclast/osteocyte activity → bone remodeling (mature lamellar bone) → restoration of original anatomy.
  • Bone healing requires the correct biological environment, including a blood supply, and a supply of cells in addition to the correct mechanical environment.
  • The final shape of the bone will conform to Wolff's law, ie 'that the internal architecture and external form of a bone are related to its function and change when the function is altered'.

Bone healing

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Ancillary aids to assessing progress of bone healing

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Surgical intervention

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Complications

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Therapeutic aids

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMed Resource and PubMed.
  • McLaughlin R M (1991)The evolution of the understanding of bone healing. Vet Comp Ortho Traum 4, 16-20.

Other sources of information

  • Tobias K & Johnston S  (2011) Veterinary Surgery: Small Animal. 1st edn. W B Saunder & Co. pp 565-571, 647-656.
  • Piemattei D L & Flo G L (1997) Handbook of Small Animal Orthopedic Fracture Repair. 3rd edn. Philadelphia: W B Saunders & Co. pp 28-47.


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