Canis ISSN: 2398-2942
Anesthetic monitoring: urine output
Contributor(s): Sheilah Robertson
- In the absence of primary renal disease and obstruction of outflow the volume of urine produced depends on the renal blood flow.
- Thus urine output can be used as an indicator of tissue perfusion.
- Adequate urine flow can be used as an indicator of adequate tissue perfusion throughout the body.
- Normal values are 1-2 ml urine/kg/hour.
- If urine output falls below 1 ml/kg/hour, corrective measures to improve tissue perfusion can be implemented.
- In the absence of response to an appropriate intravenous fluid infusion Fluid therapy , further investigation of oliguria or anuria is indicated.
- As a specific monitoring aid in the anesthesia of animals with pre-existing renal disease Anesthesia: in renal insufficiency.
- Simple technique.
- Equipment required is inexpensive.
- Allows remote monitoring of tissue perfusion when close access to the animal is difficult and without disturbing surgical drapes.
- Repeated catheterization should be avoided as this increases the risk of introducing infection into the bladder and of traumatizing the urethra.
- Collect all necessary equipment.
- Be prepared to perform the procedure prior to final positioning and draping of the animal.
- Self-retaining catheter or standard urinary catheter plus materials for suturing or fixing it in situ.
- Giving set or drip extension tubing, and any necessary adaptors.
- Calibrated bottle or empty fluid infusion bag. Alternatively, a three-way tap, spigot or clamp can be used to prevent outflow of urine until it is withdrawn manually and measured.
- Sterile lubricating jelly.
All equipment must be sterile
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