Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Zinc deficiency

Synonym(s): Zn deficiency; Zinc responsive dermatosis

Contributor(s): Rosanna Marsella

Introduction

  • Rare dietary deficiency.
  • Arctic breeds predisposed.
  • Cause: usually dietary interactions decreasing zinc bio-availability,primary deficiency unlikely if dog fed commercial food.
  • Signs: mostly cutaneous, erythema, crusting, scale of areas adjacent to mucosa.
  • Diagnosis: histopathology.
  • Treatment: balanced diet, zinc supplement.
  • Prognosis: excellent to poor depending on cause.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Absolute lack of zinc.
  • Nutritional antagonism.
  • Individual defect, eg lethal acrodermatitis Skin: acrodermatitis.

Predisposing factors

General
  • High dietary [calcium], [iron] or [copper].
  • Poor quality diet.
  • High dietary [phytate], eg soybean and cereal.
  • Breed: giant breed fed poor quality diet or diet which nutritionally interacts to decrease absorption of zinc may present with similar cutaneous signs.

Pathophysiology

  • Absolute lack: diet lacking zinc - possible but rare.
  • Nutritional antagonism: diet containing high levels of calcium, iron, copper or phytates → binds zinc → prevents intestinal absorption of zinc.
  • Individual defect: Arctic breeds → fed nutritionally balanced diet → unable to absorb enough zinc from diet.
  • English Bull Terrier: adequate dietary zinc → metabolic inability to utilize zinc → lethal acrodermatitis.

Timecourse

  • Signs develop slowly, may be precipitated by stress.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Hall J (2005) Diagnostic dermatology. Zinc responsive dermatosis. Can Vet J 46 (6), 555-557 PubMed.
  • Roudebush P & Wedekind K J (2002) Zinc-responsive dermatosis in dogs. Vet Dermatol 13 (1), 63 PubMed.
  • White S D, Bourdeau P, Rosychuk R A et al (2001) Zinc-responsive dermatosis in dogs: 41 cases and literature review. Vet Dermatol 12 (2), 101-109 PubMed.
  • Jackson H (1999) Common cutaneous diseases of the canine foot. In Practice 21 (2), 54-61 VetMedResource.
  • Thoday K L (1989) Diet-related zinc-responsive skin disease in dogs: a dying dermatosis? JSAP 30 (4), 213-5 VetMedResource.
  • van den Broek A H M & Thoday K L (1986) Skin disease in dogs associated with zinc deficiency: a report of five cases. JSAP 27 (5), 313-323 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Willemse T (1992)Zinc-related Cutaneous Disorders.In:Current Veterinary TherapyXI, R W Kirk (ed). Philadelphia: W B Saunders.
  • Lewis L D (1981)Cutaneous manifestations of nutritional imbalances.Proceedings of the 48th Annual Meeting of the American Animal Hospital Association. pp 263.


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