Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Ununited anconeal process

Contributor(s): Prof Walter Renberg

Introduction

  • Cause: developmental anomaly - failure of fusion of ossification center of anconeal process - inherited predisposition.
  • Seen predominently in German Shepherd Dog.
  • Can coexist with other manifestations of elbow dysplasia: fractured cornoid process (FCP) or osteochrondosis dissecans (OCD).
  • Signs: progressive, uni- or bilateral forelimb lameness starting between 4-5 months of age, abnormal gait and limb carriage with elbow abducted, reduced range of joint movement, pain plus or minus crepitus on full elbow flexion/extension.
  • Diagnosis: clinical signs, radiography.
  • Treatment: surgical removal of anconeal process/internal fixation and osteotomy of ulna.
  • Prognosis: fair following surgery - degenerative joint disease (DJD) a common sequel.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Developmental anomaly - inherited predisposition.
  • Unknown - possible osteochondrosis or asynchronous growth of radius and ulna.

Pathophysiology

  • Failure of ossification centre of anconeal process to fuse to ulna diaphysis.
  • Normally, anconeal process develops as part of ulna diaphysis - in certain breeds, eg German Shepherd Dog, it develops as separate 4th ossification center - appears at 10-13 weeks, fuses to ulna by 18-20 weeks.
  • Ununited anconeal process results from failure of fusion of fourth center of ossification.
  • Joint instability leads to DJD.
  • Shortening of olecranon, subluxation of joint may result.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers


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