Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Temporomandibular joint: luxation

Synonym(s): TMJ luxation

Contributor(s): Alexander M Reiter

Introduction

  • Cause: head trauma.
  • Signs: inability to fully close mouth due to contact between the maxillary and mandibular teeth; displacement of the lower jaw to one side.
  • Diagnosis: history of trauma; clinical signs, diagnostic imaging showing the mandibular condyle out of its mandibular fossa.
  • Treatment: manual or surgical reduction of the mandibular condyle back to its mandibular fossa; tape muzzle for several weeks to reduce the likelihood of repeated displacement of the mandibular condyle.
  • Prognosis: good to excellent.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

  • Decreased mandibular symphyseal movement and shorter jaw length.

Pathophysiology

  • Subluxation: mandibular condyle is minimally displaced but still situated in its mandibular fossa.
  • Luxation:
    • Rostrodorsal displacement (much more common) of the mandibular condyle results in displacement of the lower jaw to the contralateral side and contact between maxillary and mandibular teeth on the contralateral side.
    • Caudoventral displacement (rare) of the mandibular condyle is rare and usually only possible after fracture of the retroarticular process.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Reiter A M (2004) Symphysiotomy, symphysiectomy, and intermandibular arthrodesis in a cat with open-mouth jaw locking: case report and literature review. Journal of Veterinary Dentistry 21 (3), 147-158 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Lantz G C, Verstraete F J M (2012) Fractures and luxations involving the temporomandibular joint. In: Verstraete F J M, Lomer M J (eds): Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Dogs and Cats. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, pp 321-332.


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