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Talocalcaneus luxation

icanis

Synonym(s): Talocalcaneal subluxation


Introduction

  • The talocalcaneal joint is a synovial diathrodial structure with 3 cartilage covered articular facets and a proximal and distal ligament between the 2 bones. There are no ligamentous structures directly connecting the external surfaces of the 2 bones.
  • Disruption of the ligaments between the talus and calcaneus results in luxation of the 2 bones and subluxation at the calcaneoquartal or talocentral joint.
  • Talocalcaneal luxation does not occur in isolation - it is important to include the relative direction of movement of the talar head or distal calcaneus.
  • Uncommon injury in dogs, more frequent in cats.
  • Cause: blunt trauma.
  • Signs: non-weight-bearing hindlimb lameness and hock deformity.
  • Treatment: internal fixation.
  • Prognosis: good.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Blunt trauma.

Pathophysiology

  • Rupture of the talocalcaneal ligaments can result in 4 different outcomes:
    • Dorsal displacement of talar head with talocentral luxation (most common).
    • Plantar displacement of talar head with talocentral luxation.
    • Plantar displacement of distal calcaneus with calcaneoquartal subluxation.
    • Dorsal displacement of distal calcaneus with calcaneoquartal subluxation (unreported).
  • There may be concurrent collateral ligament rupture Tarsus: collateral ligament rupture or fractures of the talus.
  • In all cases defect infills with fibrous tissue (if chronic luxations) → reduction difficult.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Hurter K, Schawalder P & Schmökel H G (2004) Talocalcaneocentral luxation combined with lateral instability of the talocrural joint in a dog and a cat. VCOT 17 (1), 53-56 VetMedResource.
  • Macias C, McKee W M & May C (1999) Talocalcaneal luxation with plantar displacement of the head of the talus in a dog and a cat. Vet Rec 147 (26), 743-745 PubMed.
  • Gorse M J, Purinton P, Penwick R C, Aron D N & Roberts R E (1990) Talocalcaneal luxation an anatomic and clinical study. Vet Surg 19 (6), 429-434 PubMed.

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