Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Systemic lupus erythematosus

Synonym(s): SLE

Contributor(s): Lisa Moore, David Godfrey

Introduction

  • Rare, idiopathic multisystemic disease.
  • Cause: autoimmunity and immune complex hypersensitivity.
  • Signs: pyrexia, variable skin lesions but often symmetric and may involve the mouth, non-erosive inflammatory polyarthritis (+ other signs - anemia, spontaneous bleeding, renal failure, neuropathy, body cavity fuid).
    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is easily overdiagnosed because of the diversity of possible clinical presentations.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • The disease characteristics have followed those used in man.
  • Three sets of three factors have been considered to be important but all working at different levels and in different time frames to cause the development of the extremely variable clinical and pathological changes.
  • Etiology (genetic, hormonal and environemental factors)
  • Etiopathogenesis (T-cell dysfunction, polyclonal B-cell activation, cytokine activity)
  • Pathogenesis (immune complex-mediated organ damage, direct antibody damage, malfunctioning antibodies).

Pathophysiology

  • The presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies (ANA) Anti-nuclear antibody is an important feature of this disease. ANA is a collective term for a group of antibodies to a variety of cell nuclear antigens, including those to double stranded DNA, single stranded DNA, histones and other nuclear proteins.
  • Immune complexes formed from the reaction of these antigens with ANA are deposited in many tissues throughout the body, and tissue damage may ensue as a result of Type 3 (immune complex) hypersensitivity.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Smee N M, Harkin K R, Wilkerson M J (2007) Measurement of serum antinuclear antibody titer in dogs with and without systemic lupus erythematosus 120 cases (1997-2005). JAVMA 230 (8), 1180-1183 PubMed
  • Chabanne L, Fournel C, Rigal D, Monier J C (1999) Canine systemic lupus erythematosus. Part II. Diagnosis and treatment. Compend Clin Educ Pract Vet 21 (5), 402-410 VetMedResource.
  • Lewis D T (1998) Life threatening dermatoses in dogs. Comp Cont Ed Pract Vet 20 (3), 271-283 VetMedResource.
  • Carlotti D (1989) Autoimmune mediated skin diseases. JSAP 30 (4), 223-227 VetMedResource.

Other soucrces

  • Miller W H, Griffin C E & Campbell K L (2013) Systemic lupus erythematosus in the dog. Muller & Kirk’s Small Animal Dermatology 7th edition. Elsevier, St Louis. pp 455-459.


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