Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Synovial cell sarcoma

Contributor(s): Suzanne Murphy, Prof Walter Renberg

Introduction

  • Most common primary joint tumor but overall rare in dogs.
  • Malignant (>40% metastasize), highly locally invasive.
  • Sites: stifle most common then elbow and hock, although every joint could be involved.
  • Signs: lameness, local swelling, pain and pathogenic fracture.
  • Diagnosis: difficult, submit biopsy to experienced pathologist.
  • Treatment: amputation.
  • Prognosis: guarded - >20% have metastasized by the time of presentation.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Unknown.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Large breed dogs.

Pathophysiology

  • Thought to arise from periarticular tenosynovial tissue. Neoplastic transformation → highly invasive, malignant tumor → invasion of tendon, muscle and bone → local swelling, pain.
  • Metastasizes primarily to regional lymph nodes and lungs.

Timecourse

  • Condition progresses often for several months before diagnosis by which time >20% will have metastasized.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Whitelock R G, Dyce J, Houlton J & Jefferies A R (1997) A review of 30 tumors affecting joints. VCOT 10 (3), 146-152 Thieme.
  • Vail D M et al (1994) Evaluation of prognostic factors for dogs with synovial sarcoma - 36 cases (1886-1991). JAVMA 205 (9), 1300-1307 PubMed.
  • Silva-Krott I V, Tucker R L & Meeks J C (1993) Special sarcoma in a cat. JAVMA 203 (10), 1430-1431 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Withrow & McEwan'sSmall Animal Clinical Oncology(2007) 4th edn. Philadelphia: W B Saunders & Co.
  • Stephen J, Withrow E & McEwan E G (1996)Small Animal Clinical Oncology.2nd edn. Philadelphia: W B Saunders & Co.


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