Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Sweat gland: hyperplasia / neoplasia

Synonym(s): Apocrine cyst, apocrine cystomatosis, apocrine nevus (hyperplasia, papillary syringoadenoma, cystadenoma of apocrine sweat gland, apocrine cystadenoma, apocrine adenoma(glandular, mixed or compound, ductular or basiloid, apocrine carcinoma (apocrine cystadenocarcinoma, mixed or compound, ductular, spiradenoma, mixed tumor of apocrine sweat gland, carcinoma of apocrinesweat gland, eccrine carcinoma

Contributor(s): David Godfrey, David Scarff

Introduction

  • Cause: unknown.
  • Signs: usually solitary raised skin masses.
  • Diagnosis: examination, cytology and histopathology.
  • Treatment: surgical excision.
  • Prognosis: excellent except for occasionally highly aggressive malignancies.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Cysts are assumed to arise from blockage of the gland's duct.
  • The cause of benign and malignant neoplasms are unknown.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Increasing age.

Pathophysiology

  • There is a profusion of names that attempt to describe the specific origin of the neoplasm, as well as its behavior (see synonyms above).
  • But histopathology has not been shown to correlate well with biological behavior.
  • However the distinction between adenocarcinoma arising from epitrichial (hair-associated) glands and atrichial (eccrine) glands is important. The latter which are found only on the footpads are usually highly malignant.

Timecourse

  • Weeks to months.

Epidemiology

  • Seen in older dogs.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Simko E, Wilcock B P & Yager J A (2003) A retrospective study of 44 canine apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinomas. Can Vet J 44 (1), 38-42 PubMed.
  • Hirai T, Mubarak M, Kimura T, Ochia K & Itakura C (1997) Apocrine gland tumor of the eyelid in a dog. Vet Pathol 34 (3), 232-234 PubMed.
  • Vilafranca M, Domingo M, Roura X et al (1994) Generalised apocrine cystomatosis in an old English sheepdog. Vet Dermatol 5 (2), 83-87 VetMedResource.
  • Kalaher K M, Anderson W I & Scott D W (1990) Neoplasms of the apocrine sweat glands in 44 dogs and cats. Vet Rec 127 (16), 400-403 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Miller W H, Griffin C E & Campbell K L (2013)Neoplastic and non-neoplastic tumors.In:Muller and Kirk's Small Animal Dermatology.7th edn. Elsevier, St Louis, pp 798-790.
  • Gross T L, Ihrke P J & Walder E J (1992)Sweat gland tumours.In:Veterinary Dermatopathy A macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of canine and feline skin disease.Mosby Year Book, St Louis, pp 386.


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