Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Stomach: chronic gastritis

Contributor(s): James Simpson, Ken Harkin, Mellora Sharman

Introduction

  • Chronic inflammatory changes in gastric mucosa with concurrent signs of gastric disease.
  • Cause: rarely determined, thought to include:
    • Immune-mediated disease.
    • Foreign body reactions - hypertrophic change.
    • Gastrinoma.
    • Spiral organisms (Helicobacter).
    • Dietary factors.
    • Viral infections.
    • Parasitism.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Usually not determined.
  • Dietary.
  • Ingested material causing mucosal damage, eg drugs, toxins, dietary constituents.
  • Biliary reflux.
  • May be extension of small intestinal and/or colonic disease. 
  • Auto-immune, eg chronic atrophic gastritis. 
  • Spiral bacteria (Helicobacter) - very controversial. 
  • Foreign body migration. 
  • Parasitism. 
  • Secondary to neoplasia and ulceration.

Pathophysiology

  • Immune-mediated response to luminal antigen → dietary factors.
  • Varying damage to mucosa in non-ulcerative and ulcerative forms.
  • Secondary gastric hypomotility due to inflammation. 
  • Hypertrophic: under influence of excessive gastrin stimulation. 
  • Atrophic considered end-stage with loss of all gastric glands.

Timecourse

  • Chronic atrophic gastritis Atrophic gastritis may be end-stage of superficial gastritis and take months to years to develop.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Marks S L, Kook P H, Papich M G, Tolbert M K, Willard M D (2018) ACVIM consensus statement: Support for rational administration of gastrointestinal protectants to dogs and cats. JVIM 32(6), 1823-1840 PubMed Full Article.
  • Delles E K (1992) Chronic vomiting in the dog. Waltham Focus 2 (2), 14-19 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Burrows C F (1996) Gastric disease. In: Manual of Canine and Feline Gastroenterology. BSAVA Cheltenham. pp 90-113.


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